ETFMG Breakwave Sea Decarbonization Tech ETF
ETF Trading Symbol: BSEA
Listed on NYSE Arca, Inc.
September 17, 2021
Before you invest, you may want to review the ETFMG Breakwave Sea Decarbonization Tech ETF (the “Fund”) prospectus and statement of additional information, which contain more information about the Fund and its risks. The current prospectus and statement of additional information dated September 17, 2021, are incorporated by reference into this Summary Prospectus. You can find the Fund’s prospectus, reports to shareholders, and other information about the Fund online at https://etfmg.com/funds/bsea/. You can also get this information at no cost by calling 1-844-ETFMGRS (383-6477) or by sending an e-mail request to firstname.lastname@example.org.
The ETFMG Breakwave Sea Decarbonization Tech ETF (the “Fund” or the “Decarbonization ETF”) seeks to provide investment results that, before fees and expenses, correspond generally to the total return performance of the Marine Money Decarbonization Index (the “Index”).
Fees and Expenses
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). This table and the Example below do not include the brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries that investors may pay on their purchases and sales of Shares.
|Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)|
|Management Fee||0.75 ||%|
|Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fees||None|
|Other Expenses*||0.00 ||%|
|Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses||0.75 ||%|
* Based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. This Example does not take into account the brokerage commissions that you may pay on your purchases and sales of Shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your cost would be:
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when the Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, affect the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund is newly organized, portfolio turnover information is not yet available.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund uses a “passive” or indexing approach to try to achieve the Fund’s investment objective. Unlike many investment companies, the Fund does not try to “beat” the Index and does not seek temporary defensive positions when markets decline or appear overvalued.
The Marine Money Decarbonization Index
The Index was created by Maritime Transformation Partners, LLC (the “Index Provider”) and tracks the performance of the equity securities of a diversified set of global companies that develop technologies, manufacture equipment or provide services related to marine or ocean decarbonization.
Construction of the Index begins with the universe of global companies with a minimum market capitalization of $100 million. In addition, the Index components are common stock (or corresponding American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) or Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”)) listed on an exchange in a developed market and have a six-month average trading volume of $2 million. The business descriptions of and other information regarding companies that meet the eligibility criteria are reviewed for specific factors related to technologies, equipment or services involved in cleaner propulsion (including alternative fuels, batteries and fuel cells), carbon capture technologies and offshore wind development. The universe of companies that may be considered eligible for potential Index inclusion is determined by an index committee based on factors such as a company’s business description, product lines, investment growth plans, exposure to the maritime sector, and its most recent reported revenue by segment.
The universe of companies is then divided by the Index Provider to two tiers: the Core tier (“Core”) and the Tracking tier (“Tracking”). The Core tier has an 80% weighting in the Index, while the Tracking tier has a 20% weighting in the Index. The Core tier is currently comprised of approximately 20 companies that are leaders in their respective business sectors. In addition, to be considered for inclusion in the Core tier, a potential constituent must (i) derive the majority of its revenues from sales of technology, equipment or services related to marine decarbonization, which includes marine infrastructure modernization that has the effect of reducing carbon emissions; (ii) have made substantial investment commitment, typically a majority of their research and development budget, in marine decarbonization technologies, equipment or services, including lower carbon fuel development, distribution or consumption; or (iii) be a stakeholder in a marine decarbonization demonstration project recognized by the Global Maritime Forum, an international not-for-profit organization committed to shaping the future of global seaborne trade to increase sustainable long-term economic development and human well being, or a similar successor organization. The 20 constituents will be equally weighted in the Core tier of the Index. The Tracking tier of the Index is comprised of companies with promising developments or significant investment in relevant business sectors that have not yet reached the development stage or scale targeted as it relates to decarbonization efforts or sufficient materiality to the company’s overall business. The constituents will be equally weighted in the Tracking tier of the Index. The Tracking tier generally includes, but is not limited to, 20 to 40 constituents based on eligibility. The Core tier constituents must have a minimum market capitalization of $500 million and the Tracking tier constituents must have a minimum market capitalization of $100 million. The weight of each security is capped at 10%. All excess weight is proportionally redistributed to all uncapped constituents within the relevant index tier.
The Index follows a quarterly rebalance and reconstitution schedule. Adjustments are made on the third Friday of March, June, September and December which is deemed the effective day. Weights are calculated and Index shares are frozen at the close of that specific day. The selection list is created based on the data as of the effective day.
The Index is calculated and maintained by Solactive AG, which is independent of the Index Provider, the Fund, its adviser and distributor.
The Index is not limited to a minimum or maximum number of constituents; rather, its composition is determined by the index committee based on the criteria outlined in the Index’s methodology. The Index may include companies of any market capitalization, including small capitalization companies, subject to meeting the Index eligibility criteria. The Index Provider anticipates that the Index will generally include between 40 and 60 companies. As of June 1, 2021, the Index included the securities of 50 companies with minimum and maximum market capitalizations of $100 million and $50 billion, respectively.
The Fund’s Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund generally expects to use a replication strategy. A replication strategy is an indexing strategy that involves investing in the securities of the Index in approximately the same proportions as in the Index. However, the Fund may utilize a representative sampling strategy with respect to the Index when a replication strategy might be detrimental to shareholders, such as when there are practical difficulties or substantial costs involved in compiling a portfolio of equity securities to follow the Index, in instances in which a security in the Index becomes temporarily illiquid, unavailable or less liquid, or as a result of legal restrictions or limitations (such as tax diversification requirements) that apply to the Fund but not the Index.
Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, in Core tier companies or companies that derive a majority of their revenues or profits from, or invest a majority of their assets in, technologies (including their equipment and directly related services) for marine or ocean decarbonization (the “80% Policy”). The Fund may lend its portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and other financial organizations. These loans, if and when made, may not exceed 33 1/3% of the total asset value of the Fund (including the loan collateral). By lending its securities, the Fund may increase its income by receiving payments from the borrower. The Fund rebalances its portfolio in accordance with its Index, and, therefore, any changes to the Index’s rebalance schedule will result in corresponding changes to the Fund’s rebalance schedule.
Correlation: Correlation is the extent to which the values of different types of investments move in tandem with one another in response to changing economic and market conditions. An index is a theoretical financial calculation, while the Fund is an actual investment portfolio. The performance of the Fund and the Index may vary somewhat due to transaction costs, asset valuations, foreign currency valuations, market impact, corporate actions (such as mergers and spin-offs), legal restrictions or limitations, illiquid or unavailable securities, and timing variances.
The Fund’s investment adviser expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will exceed 95%. A correlation percentage of 100% would indicate perfect correlation. If the Fund uses a replication strategy, it can be expected to have greater correlation to the Index than if it uses a representative sampling strategy.
Industry Concentration: The Fund will concentrate its investments (i.e., hold 25% or more of its net assets) in a particular industry or group of related industries to approximately the same extent that the Index is concentrated. As of August 30, 2021, the Index was concentrated in companies in the energy industry group and the industrials industry group.
As with all funds, a shareholder is subject to the risk that his or her investment could lose money. The principal risks affecting shareholders’ investments in the Fund are set forth below. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any government agency.
Associated Risk of Investing in Decarbonization Companies: The underlying Index’s decarbonization criteria, and thus the Fund’s investment strategy, limits the types and number of investment opportunities available to the Fund, and, as a result, the Fund’s returns may be lower than other funds that do not seek to invest in companies based on decarbonization criteria. In addition, decarbonization investing may affect the Fund’s exposure to certain companies or industries and the Fund will forgo certain investment opportunities that are screened out of the decarbonization methodology. Finally, some of the companies are developing new technologies that have not yet achieved full commercialization.
Equity Market Risk: The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which the Fund invests such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. Additionally, natural or environmental disasters, widespread disease or other public health issues, war, acts of terrorism or other events could result in increased premiums or discounts to the Fund’s NAV.
The remaining risks are presented in alphabetical order. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears.
Concentration Risk: The Fund’s investments will be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent the Index is so concentrated. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular industries, groups of industries, or sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those industries, groups of industries, or sectors of the economy, and the value of Fund shares may rise and fall more than the value of shares that invest in securities of companies in a broader range of industries or sectors.
Absence of an Active Market: Although the Fund’s shares are approved for listing on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”), there can be no assurance that an active trading market will develop and be maintained for Fund shares. There can be no assurance that the Fund will grow to or maintain an economically viable size, in which case the Fund may experience greater tracking error to its Index than it otherwise would at higher asset levels or the Fund may ultimately liquidate.
Authorized Participants (“APs”), Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration: The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material
discount to net asset value (“NAV”) and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Cash Transactions: While not likely, the Fund may effect its creations and redemptions primarily for cash, rather than in-kind securities. Paying redemption proceeds in cash rather than through in-kind delivery of portfolio securities may require the Fund to dispose of or sell portfolio investments at an inopportune time to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to incur certain costs such as brokerage costs, and to recognize gains or losses that it might not have incurred if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher or lower annual capital gains distributions than ETFs that redeem in-kind. In addition, the costs imposed on the Fund will decrease the Fund’s NAV unless the costs are offset by a transaction fee payable by an AP.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares: Investors buying or selling Fund shares in the secondary market will pay brokerage commissions or other charges imposed by brokers as determined by that broker. Brokerage commissions are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of shares.
Fluctuation of NAV: The NAV of Fund shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s securities holdings. The market prices of shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in the Fund’s NAV and supply and demand of shares on the Exchange. It cannot be predicted whether Fund shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. During periods of unusual volatility or market disruptions, market prices of Fund shares may deviate significantly from the market value of the Fund’s securities holdings or the NAV of Fund shares. As a result, investors in the Fund may pay significantly more or receive significantly less for Fund shares than the value of the Fund’s underlying securities or the NAV of Fund shares.
Market Trading: An investment in the Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including the potential lack of an active market for Fund shares, losses from trading in secondary markets, periods of high volatility and disruption in the creation/redemption process of the Fund. Any of these factors, among others, may lead to the Fund’s shares trading at a premium or discount to NAV.
Trading Issues: Although Fund shares are listed for trading on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in Fund shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of any Fund will continue to be met or will remain unchanged or that the shares will trade with any volume, or at all. Further, secondary markets may be subject to erratic trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods in times of market stress because market makers and APs may step away from making a market in Fund shares and in executing creation and redemption orders, which could cause a material deviation in the Fund’s market price from its NAV.
Foreign Investment Risk: Returns on investments in foreign stocks could be more volatile than, or trail the returns on, investments in U.S. stocks.
Currency Risk: Indirect and direct exposure to foreign currencies subjects the Fund to the risk that currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar. Currency rates in foreign countries may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time for a number of reasons, including changes in interest rates and the imposition of currency controls or other political developments in the U.S. or abroad.
Depositary Receipts Risk: The Fund may invest in depositary receipts. Investment in ADRs and GDRs may be less liquid than the underlying shares in their primary trading market and GDRs, many of which are issued by companies in emerging markets, may be more volatile and less liquid than depositary receipts issued by companies in more developed markets.
Foreign Market and Trading Risk: The trading markets for many foreign securities are not as active as U.S. markets and may have less governmental regulation and oversight. Foreign markets also may have clearance and settlement procedures that make it difficult for the Fund to buy and sell securities. These factors could result in a loss to the Fund by causing the Fund to be unable to dispose of an investment or to miss an attractive investment opportunity, or by causing Fund assets to be uninvested for some period of time.
Foreign Securities Risk: The Fund invests a significant portion of its assets directly in securities of issuers based outside of the U.S., or in depositary receipts that represent such securities. Investments in securities of non-U.S. issuers involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in securities of U.S. issuers, such as risk of loss due to foreign
currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability, as well as varying regulatory requirements applicable to investments in non-U.S. issuers. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than a U.S. issuer. Non-U.S. issuers may also be subject to different regulatory, accounting, auditing, financial reporting and investor protection standards than U.S. issuers.
Political and Economic Risk: The Fund is subject to foreign political and economic risk not associated with U.S. investments, meaning that political events, social and economic events and natural disasters occurring in a country where the Fund invests could cause the Fund’s investments in that country to experience gains or losses. The Fund also could be unable to enforce its ownership rights or pursue legal remedies in countries where it invests.
Privatization Risk: Several foreign countries in which the Fund invests have begun a process of privatizing certain entities and industries. Privatized entities may lose money or be re-nationalized.
Risks Related to Investing in Europe: The economies and markets of European countries are often closely connected and interdependent, and events in one country in Europe can have an adverse impact on other European countries. The Fund makes investments in securities of issuers that are domiciled in, or have significant operations in, member countries of the European Union (the “EU”) that are subject to economic and monetary controls that can adversely affect the Fund’s investments. The European financial markets have experienced volatility and adverse trends in recent years and these events have adversely affected the exchange rate of the euro and may continue to significantly affect other European countries. Decreasing imports or exports, changes in governmental or EU regulations on trade, changes in the exchange rate of the euro, the default or threat of default by an EU member country on its sovereign debt, and/or an economic recession in an EU member country may have a significant adverse effect on the economies of EU member countries and their trading partners, including some or all of the European countries in which the Fund invests.
Following a referendum in June 2016, the UK formally exited from the EU on January 31, 2020 (known as “Brexit”). During a transition period that ended December 31, 2020, the UK continued to abide by the EU’s rules and the UK’s trade relationships with the EU will generally continue unchanged. During this period and beyond, the impact on the UK and European economies and the broader global economy could be significant, resulting in negative impacts, such as increased volatility and illiquidity, and potentially lower economic growth of markets in the UK, Europe and globally, which may adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments. Additionally, depreciation of the British pound sterling and/or the euro in relation to the U.S. dollar in anticipation of Brexit would adversely affect Fund investments denominated in British pound sterling and/or the euro, regardless of the performance of the investment.
Geographic Investment Risk: To the extent that the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country or region, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country or region. For example, political and economic conditions and changes in regulatory, tax, or economic policy in a country could significantly affect the market in that country and in surrounding or related countries and have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance. Currency developments or restrictions, political and social instability, and changing economic conditions have resulted in significant market volatility.
Management Risk: While the Fund is not actively managed, the Fund is subject to the risks associated with decisions made by the Fund’s investment adviser if the Fund utilizes a representative sampling strategy or to the extent the Fund’s investment adviser makes decisions regarding the investment of collateral from securities on loan.
Models and Data Risk: The Index relies heavily on proprietary models as well as information and data supplied by third parties (“Models and Data”). When Models and Data prove to be incorrect or incomplete, any decisions by the Index made in reliance thereon expose the Fund to potential risks as the Fund tracks the Index.
Natural Disaster/Epidemic Risk: Natural or environmental disasters, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis and other severe weather-related phenomena generally, and widespread disease, including pandemics and epidemics, have been and may be highly disruptive to economies and markets, adversely impacting individual companies, sectors, industries, markets, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of the Fund’s investments. Given the increasing interdependence among global economies and markets, conditions in one country, market, or region are increasingly likely to adversely affect markets, issuers, and/or foreign exchange rates in other countries, including the U.S. Any such events could have a significant adverse impact on the value of the Fund’s investments.
New Fund Risk: The Fund is a recently organized investment company with limited operating history. As a result, prospective investors have a limited track record or history on which to base their investment decision. There can be no assurance that the Fund will grow to or maintain an economically viable size.
New Index Provider Risk: The Index was created by and is owned and maintained by the Index Provider, which has not previously been an index provider, which may create additional risks for investing in the Fund.
Non-Diversification Risk: Because the Fund is “non-diversified,” it may invest a greater percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a small number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. As a result, a decline in the value of an investment in a single issuer or a small number of issuers could cause the Fund’s overall value to decline to a greater degree than if the Fund held a more diversified portfolio. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.
Passive Investment Risk: The Fund is not actively managed and therefore would not sell an equity security due to current or projected underperformance of a security, industry or sector, unless that security is removed from the Index. Unlike with an actively managed fund, the Fund’s investment adviser does not use techniques or defensive strategies designed to lessen the effects of market volatility or to reduce the impact of periods of market decline. This means that, based on market and economic conditions, the Fund’s performance could be lower than other types of funds that may actively shift their portfolio assets to take advantage of market opportunities or to lessen the impact of a market decline.
Securities Lending Risk: The Fund may engage in securities lending. The Fund may lose money if the borrower of the loaned securities delays returning in a timely manner or fails to return the loaned securities. Securities lending involves the risk that the Fund could lose money in the event of a decline in the value of collateral provided for loaned securities. In addition, the Fund bears the risk of loss in connection with its investment of the cash collateral it receives from a borrower. To the extent that the value or return of the Fund’s investment of the cash collateral declines below the amount owed to the borrower, the Fund may incur losses that exceed the amount it earned on lending the security.
Smaller Companies Risk: The Fund’s Index may be composed primarily of, or have significant exposure to, securities of smaller companies. Smaller companies may be more vulnerable to adverse business or economic events than larger, more established companies, and may underperform other segments of the market or the equity market as a whole. The securities of smaller companies also tend to be bought and sold less frequently and at significantly lower trading volumes than the securities of larger companies. As a result, it may be more difficult for the Fund to buy or sell a significant amount of the securities of a smaller company without an adverse impact on the price of the company’s securities, or the Fund may have to sell such securities in smaller quantities over a longer period of time, which may increase the Fund’s tracking error.
Tax Risk: To qualify for the favorable tax treatment generally available to regulated investment companies, the Fund must satisfy certain diversification requirements under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). In particular, the Fund generally may not acquire a security if, as a result of the acquisition, more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s assets would be invested in (a) issuers in which the Fund has, in each case, invested more than 5% of the Fund’s assets and (b) issuers more than 10% of whose outstanding voting securities are owned by the Fund. When the Index is concentrated in a relatively small number of securities, it may not be possible for the Fund to fully implement a replication strategy or a representative sampling strategy while satisfying these diversification requirements. The Fund’s efforts to satisfy the diversification requirements may cause the Fund’s return to deviate from that of the Index, and the Fund’s efforts to replicate the Index may cause it inadvertently to fail to satisfy the diversification requirements. If the Fund were to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income.
Tracking Error Risk: The Fund’s return may not match or achieve a high degree of correlation with the return of the Index. To the extent the Fund utilizes a sampling approach, it may experience tracking error to a greater extent than if the Fund sought to replicate the Index. In addition, in order to minimize the market impact of an Index rebalance, the Fund may begin trading to effect the rebalance in advance of the effective date of the rebalance and continue trading after the effective date of the rebalance, which may contribute to tracking error.
Valuation Risk: The sales price that the Fund could receive for a security may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the security and may differ from the value used by the Index, particularly for securities that trade in low volume or volatile markets or that are valued using a fair value methodology. In addition, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s shares.
The Fund is new and therefore does not have performance history for a full calendar year. Once the Fund has completed a full calendar year of operations, a bar chart and table will be included that will provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing the variability of the Fund’s returns and comparing the Fund’s performance to a broad measure of market performance. Updated performance information is available at www.etfmg.com.
ETF Managers Group LLC (the “Adviser”) serves as the investment adviser to the Fund.
Samuel R. Masucci, III, Chief Executive Officer of the Adviser, Frank Vallario, Chief Investment Officer of the Adviser, Donal Bishnoi, Portfolio Manager of the Adviser, and Devin Ryder, Portfolio Manager of the Adviser, have been the Fund’s portfolio managers since the Fund’s inception in September 2021.
Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and individual Shares may only be bought and sold in the secondary market through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Investors may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (ask) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). Recent information about the Fund, including its NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads is available on the Fund’s website at www.etfmg.com.
Except when aggregated in Creation Units, the Fund’s shares are not redeemable securities.
The distributions made by the Fund are taxable, and will be taxed as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an Individual Retirement Account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged account. However, subsequent withdrawals from such a tax-advantaged account may be subject to federal income tax. You should consult your tax advisor about your specific tax situation.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Fund shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.