Filed Pursuant to Rule 433
Registration Statement No. 333-259205




The information in this preliminary terms supplement is not complete and may be changed.
 

Preliminary Terms Supplement
Subject to Completion:
Dated October 12, 2021
Pricing Supplement Dated October __, 2021 to the Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-EI-1, the Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus, Each Dated September 14, 2021

$
Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the Lesser
Performing of Two Equity Indices, Due October 31,
2024
Royal Bank of Canada




Royal Bank of Canada is offering Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices (the “Notes”). The Notes are our senior unsecured obligations, and will have the terms described in the documents described above, as supplemented or modified by this terms supplement.
Reference Assets
 
Initial Levels*
 
Barrier Levels
MSCI EAFE® Index (“MXEA”)
     
65.00% of its Initial Level
MSCI Emerging Markets Index (“MXEF”)
     
65.00% of its Initial Level
* For each Reference Asset, the Initial Level will be its closing level on the Trade Date.
The Notes do not guarantee any return of principal at maturity. Any payments on the Notes are subject to our credit risk.
Investing in the Notes involves a number of risks. See “Selected Risk Considerations” beginning on page P-6 of this terms supplement, “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” beginning on page PS-4 of the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, and “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-2 of the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021.
The Notes will not constitute deposits insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation, the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other Canadian or U.S. government agency or instrumentality. The Notes are not subject to conversion into our common shares under subsection 39.2(2.3) of the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the Notes or determined that this terms supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Issuer:
Royal Bank of Canada
Stock Exchange Listing:
None
Trade Date:
October 26, 2021
Principal Amount:
$1,000 per Note
Issue Date:
October 29, 2021
Maturity Date:
October 31, 2024
Valuation Date:
October 28, 2024
Leverage Factor:
200%
Final Level:
For each Reference Asset, its closing level on the Valuation Date.
Payment at Maturity:
If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than its Initial Level, the investor will receive the principal amount plus a return equal to the product of the Percentage Change (as defined below) of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset and the Leverage Factor, subject to the Maximum Redemption Amount.
If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than or equal to its Initial Level, but greater than or equal to its Barrier Level, the investor will receive the principal amount.
If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than its Barrier Level, the investor will receive an amount that is less than the principal amount, and that reflects the percentage decrease in the level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset. An investor could lose all or a substantial portion of the principal amount of the Notes.
Lesser Performing
Reference Asset:
The Reference Asset which has the lowest Percentage Change.
Maximum Redemption
Amount:
[$1,400 - $1,450] per $1,000 in principal amount (to be determined on the Trade Date)
Interest Payments:
None.
CUSIP:
78016F3L6

 
Per Note
 
Total
Price to public(1)
100.00%
 
$
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
2.25%
 
$
Proceeds to Royal Bank of Canada
97.75%
 
$
       
(1) We or one of our affiliates may pay varying selling concessions of up to $22.50 per $1,000 in principal amount of the Notes in connection with the distribution of the Notes to other registered broker dealers. See “Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)” below. Certain dealers who purchase the Notes for sale to certain fee-based advisory accounts may forego some or all of their underwriting discount or selling concessions. The public offering price for investors purchasing the Notes in these accounts may be between $977.50 and $1,000 per $1,000 in principal amount.
The initial estimated value of the Notes as of the Trade Date is expected to be at least $890 per $1,000 in principal amount, and will be less than the price to public. The final pricing supplement relating to the Notes will set forth our estimate of the initial value of the Notes as of the Trade Date. The actual value of the Notes at any time will reflect many factors, cannot be predicted with accuracy, and may be less than this amount. We describe our determination of the initial estimated value in more detail below.

RBC Capital Markets, LLC



 


Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the
Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices

SUMMARY

The information in this “Summary” section is qualified by the more detailed information set forth in this terms supplement, the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement, and the prospectus.

General:
This terms supplement relates to an offering of Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices (the “Notes”).
Issuer:
Royal Bank of Canada (“Royal Bank”)
Trade Date (Pricing
Date):
October 26, 2021
Issue Date:
October 29, 2021
Valuation Date:
October 28, 2024
Maturity Date:
October 31, 2024
Denominations:
Minimum denomination of $1,000, and integral multiples of $1,000 thereafter.
Designated Currency:
U.S. Dollars
Initial Level:
For each Reference Asset, its closing level on the Trade Date.
Final Level:
For each Reference Asset, its closing level on the Valuation Date.
Barrier Level:
For each Reference Asset, 65.00% of its Initial Level.
Redemption Amount:
On the Valuation Date, we will pay you at maturity an amount based on the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset:
If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than its Initial Level, then the investor will receive, for each $1,000 in principal amount, an amount equal to the lesser of:
1.  $1,000 + [$1,000 x (Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset x Leverage Factor)]; and
2.  Maximum Redemption Amount
If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than or equal to its Initial Level, but is greater than or equal to its Barrier Level, the investor will receive the principal amount.
If the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than its Barrier Level, then the investor will receive, for each $1,000 in principal amount, an amount equal to:
$1,000 + ($1,000 x Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset)
In this case, you will lose all or a substantial portion of the principal amount.
Percentage Change:
With respect to each Reference Asset:
Final Level – Initial Level
Initial Level
Leverage Factor:
200%
Maximum Redemption
Amount:
[$1,400 - $1,450] per $1,000 in principal amount (to be determined on the Trade Date)
Lesser Performing
Reference Asset:
The Reference Asset which has the lowest Percentage Change.
Market Disruption
Events:
If a market disruption event occurs on the Valuation Date as to a Reference Asset, the determination of the Final Level of that Reference Asset will be postponed. However, the determination of the Final Level of any Reference Asset that is not affected by that market disruption event will not be postponed.
Calculation Agent:
RBC Capital Markets, LLC (“RBCCM”)

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 


Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the
Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices

U.S. Tax Treatment:
By purchasing a Note, each holder agrees (in the absence of a change in law, an administrative determination or a judicial ruling to the contrary) to treat the Note as a pre-paid cash-settled derivative contract in respect of the Reference Assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of your investment in the Notes are uncertain and the Internal Revenue Service could assert that the Notes should be taxed in a manner that is different from that described in the preceding sentence. Please see the section below, “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences,” and the discussion (including the opinion of our special U.S. tax counsel, Ashurst LLP) in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences,” which apply to the Notes.
Secondary Market:
RBCCM (or one of its affiliates), though not obligated to do so, may maintain a secondary market in the Notes after the issue date. The amount that you may receive upon sale of your Notes prior to maturity may be less than the principal amount.
Listing:
The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.
Settlement:
DTC global (including through its indirect participants Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg as described under “Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021).
Terms Incorporated in
the Master Note:
All of the terms appearing on the cover page and above the item captioned “Secondary Market” on pages P-2 and P-3 of this terms supplement and the terms appearing under the caption “General Terms of the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, as modified by this terms supplement.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 


Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the
Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices

ADDITIONAL TERMS OF YOUR NOTES
You should read this terms supplement together with the prospectus dated September 14, 2021, as supplemented by the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, relating to our Senior Global Medium-Term Notes, Series I, of which these Notes are a part. Capitalized terms used but not defined in this terms supplement will have the meanings given to them in the product prospectus supplement. In the event of any conflict, this terms supplement will control. The Notes vary from the terms described in the product prospectus supplement in several important ways. You should read this terms supplement carefully.
This terms supplement, together with the documents listed below, contains the terms of the Notes and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous oral statements as well as any other written materials including preliminary or indicative pricing terms, correspondence, trade ideas, structures for implementation, sample structures, brochures or other educational materials of ours. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters set forth in “Risk Factors” in the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, as the Notes involve risks not associated with conventional debt securities. We urge you to consult your investment, legal, tax, accounting and other advisors before you invest in the Notes. You may access these documents on the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) website at www.sec.gov as follows (or if that address has changed, by reviewing our filings for the relevant date on the SEC website):
Prospectus dated September 14, 2021:
https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1000275/000121465921009470/rbc911212424b3.htm
Prospectus Supplement dated September 14, 2021:
https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1000275/000121465921009472/rbcsupp911210424b3.htm
Product Prospectus Supplement ERN-EI-1 dated September 14, 2021:
https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1000275/000114036121031150/brhc10028901_424b5.htm
Our Central Index Key, or CIK, on the SEC website is 1000275. As used in this terms supplement, “we,” “us,” or “our” refers to Royal Bank of Canada.
Royal Bank of Canada has filed a registration statement (including a product prospectus supplement, a prospectus supplement, and a prospectus) with the SEC for the offering to which this terms supplement relates. Before you invest, you should read those documents and the other documents relating to this offering that we have filed with the SEC for more complete information about us and this offering. You may obtain these documents without cost by visiting EDGAR on the SEC website at www.sec.gov. Alternatively, Royal Bank of Canada, any agent or any dealer participating in this offering will arrange to send you the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement and the prospectus if you so request by calling toll-free at 1-877-688-2301.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 


Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the
Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices

HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLES
The examples set out below are included for illustration purposes only. The hypothetical Percentage Changes of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset used to illustrate the calculation of the Payment at Maturity (rounded to two decimal places) are not estimates or forecasts of the Initial Level, the Final Level or the level of any Reference Asset on any trading day prior to the Maturity Date. All examples assume a Barrier Level of 65% of the Initial Level for each Reference Asset, the Leverage Factor of 200%, a hypothetical Maximum Redemption Amount of $1,425 (the mid-point of the range set forth above), and that a holder purchased Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $1,000 and that no market disruption event occurs on the Valuation Date.
Example 1: The level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset increases by 10% from the Initial Level of 1,000 to its Final Level of 1,100. Because the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than its Initial Level, the investor receives at maturity, a cash payment of $1,200 per Note, calculated as follows:
$1,000 + [$1,000 x (Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset x Leverage Factor)]
= $1,000 + [$1,000 x (10% x 200%)] = $1,000 + $200 = $1,200
Example 2: The level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset increases by 30% from the Initial Level of 1,000 to its Final Level of 1,300 (and the Payment at Maturity is subject to the Maximum Redemption Amount). Because the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than its Initial Level, the investor receives at maturity, a cash payment of $1,425 per Note, calculated as follows:
$1,000 + [$1,000 x (Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset x Leverage Factor)]
= $1,000 + [$1,000 x (30% x 200%)] = $1,000 + $600 = $1,600
However, the Maximum Redemption Amount is $1,425. Accordingly, a Percentage Change of 30% will result in a payment of $1,425, a return of 42.50%.
Example 3: The level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset decreases by 15% from the Initial Level of 1,000 to its Final Level of 850. Because the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is greater than its Barrier Level, the investor receives at maturity, the principal amount despite the 15% decline in the level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset.
Example 4: The level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is 400 on the Valuation Date, which is less than its Barrier Level of 700. Because the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than its Barrier Level, we will pay only $400 for each $1,000 in the principal amount of the Notes, calculated as follows:
$1,000 + (1,000 x Percentage Change of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset)
= $1,000 + ($1,000 x -60%) = $1,000 - $600 = $400
* * *
The Payments at Maturity shown above are entirely hypothetical; they are based on levels of the Reference Assets that may not be achieved on the Valuation Date and on assumptions that may prove to be erroneous. The actual market value of your Notes on the Maturity Date or at any other time, including any time you may wish to sell your Notes, may bear little relation to the hypothetical Redemption Amounts shown above, and those amounts should not be viewed as an indication of the financial return on an investment in the Notes or on an investment in the securities included in either Reference Asset.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 


Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the
Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices

SELECTED RISK CONSIDERATIONS
An investment in the Notes involves significant risks. Investing in the Notes is not equivalent to investing directly in the Reference Assets. These risks are explained in more detail in the section “Additional Risk Factors Specific to the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement. In addition to the risks described in the prospectus supplement and the product prospectus supplement, you should consider the following:
Risks Relating to the Terms of the Notes

You May Lose All or a Substantial Portion of the Principal Amount at Maturity – Investors in the Notes could lose all or a substantial portion of their principal amount if there is a decline in the level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset between the Trade Date and the Valuation Date of more than 35%. In such a case, you will lose 1% of the principal amount of your Notes for each 1% that the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset is less than its Initial Level.

Your Redemption Amount Will Be Determined Solely by Reference to the Lesser Performing Reference Asset Even if the Other Reference Asset Performs Better – Your Redemption Amount will be determined solely by reference to the performance of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset. Even if the Final Level of the other Reference Asset has increased compared to its Initial Level, or has experienced a decrease that is less than that of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset, your return will only be determined by reference to the performance of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset, regardless of the performance of the other Reference Asset. The Notes are not linked to a weighted basket, in which the risk may be mitigated and diversified among each of the basket components. For example, in the case of notes linked to a weighted basket, the return would depend on the weighted aggregate performance of the basket components reflected as the basket return. As a result, the depreciation of one basket component could be mitigated by the appreciation of the other basket component, as scaled by the weighting of that basket component. However, in the case of the Notes, the individual performance of each of the Reference Assets would not be combined, and the depreciation of one Reference Asset would not be mitigated by any appreciation of the other Reference Asset. Instead your return will depend solely on the Final Level of the Lesser Performing Reference Asset. Because each Reference Asset tracks a different segment of the U.S. equities market, they may both decrease in a comparable manner.

Your Potential Payment at Maturity Is Limited – The Notes will provide less opportunity to participate in the appreciation of the Reference Assets than an investment in a security linked to one or both of the Reference Assets providing full participation in the appreciation, because the payment at maturity will not exceed the Maximum Redemption Amount. Accordingly, your return on the Notes may be less than your return would be if you made an investment in a security directly linked to the positive performance of the Reference Assets.

The Notes Do Not Pay Interest and Your Return May Be Lower than the Return on a Conventional Debt Security of Comparable Maturity – You will not receive any interest payments on the Notes as there would be on a conventional fixed-rate or floating-rate debt security having the same maturity. The return that you will receive on the Notes, which could be negative, may be less than the return you could earn on other investments. Even if your return is positive, the return may be less than the return you would earn if you purchased one of our conventional senior interest bearing debt securities.

Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Our Credit Risk, and Changes in Our Credit Ratings Are Expected to Affect the Market Value of the Notes – The Notes are our senior unsecured debt securities. As a result, your receipt of the Redemption Amount is dependent upon our ability to repay our obligations at that time. This will be the case even if the levels of the Reference Assets increase after the Trade Date. No assurance can be given as to what our financial condition will be at the maturity of the Notes.
Risks Relating to the Secondary Market for the Notes

There May Not Be an Active Trading Market for the NotesSales in the Secondary Market May Result in Significant Losses – There may be little or no secondary market for the Notes. The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange. RBCCM and our other affiliates may make a market for the Notes; however, they are not required to do so. RBCCM or any of our other affiliates may stop any market-making activities at any time. Even if a secondary market for the Notes develops, it may not provide significant liquidity or trade at prices advantageous

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 


Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the
Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices

to you. We expect that transaction costs in any secondary market would be high. As a result, the difference between bid and asked prices for your Notes in any secondary market could be substantial.
Risks Relating to the Estimated Value of the Notes

The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Will Be Less than the Price to the Public  The initial estimated value that will be set forth on the cover page of the final pricing supplement for the Notes does not represent a minimum price at which we, RBCCM or any of our affiliates would be willing to purchase the Notes in any secondary market (if any exists) at any time. If you attempt to sell the Notes prior to maturity, their market value may be lower than the price you paid for them and the initial estimated value. This is due to, among other things, changes in the levels of the Reference Assets, the borrowing rate we pay to issue securities of this kind, and the inclusion in the price to the public of the underwriting discount and the estimated costs relating to our hedging of the Notes. These factors, together with various credit, market and economic factors over the term of the Notes, are expected to reduce the price at which you may be able to sell the Notes in any secondary market and will affect the value of the Notes in complex and unpredictable ways. Assuming no change in market conditions or any other relevant factors, the price, if any, at which you may be able to sell your Notes prior to maturity may be less than your original purchase price, as any such sale price would not be expected to include the underwriting discount and the hedging costs relating to the Notes. In addition to bid-ask spreads, the value of the Notes determined by RBCCM for any secondary market price is expected to be based on the secondary rate rather than the internal funding rate used to price the Notes and determine the initial estimated value. As a result, the secondary price will be less than if the internal funding rate was used. The Notes are not designed to be short-term trading instruments. Accordingly, you should be able and willing to hold your Notes to maturity.

The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes that We Will Provide in the Final Pricing Supplement Will Be an Estimate Only, Calculated as of the Time the Terms of the Notes Are Set — The initial estimated value of the Notes will be based on the value of our obligation to make the payments on the Notes, together with the mid-market value of the derivative embedded in the terms of the Notes. See “Structuring the Notes” below. Our estimate will be based on a variety of assumptions, including our credit spreads, expectations as to dividends, interest rates and volatility, and the expected term of the Notes. These assumptions are based on certain forecasts about future events, which may prove to be incorrect. Other entities may value the Notes or similar securities at a price that is significantly different than we do.
The value of the Notes at any time after the Trade Date will vary based on many factors, including changes in market conditions, and cannot be predicted with accuracy. As a result, the actual value you would receive if you sold the Notes in any secondary market, if any, should be expected to differ materially from the initial estimated value of your Notes.
Risks Relating to Conflicts of Interest and Our Trading Activities

Our Business Activities May Create Conflicts of Interest — We and our affiliates expect to engage in trading activities related to the Reference Assets that are not for the account of holders of the Notes or on their behalf. These trading activities may present a conflict between the holders’ interests in the Notes and the interests we and our affiliates will have in their proprietary accounts, in facilitating transactions, including options and other derivatives transactions, for their customers and in accounts under their management. These trading activities, if they influence the levels of the Reference Assets, could be adverse to the interests of the holders of the Notes. We and one or more of our affiliates may, at present or in the future, engage in business with companies included in the Reference Assets, including making loans to or providing advisory services. These services could include investment banking and merger and acquisition advisory services. These activities may present a conflict between our or one or more of our affiliates’ obligations and your interests as a holder of the Notes. Moreover, we, and our affiliates may have published, and in the future expect to publish, research reports with respect to the Reference Assets. This research is modified from time to time without notice and may express opinions or provide recommendations that are inconsistent with purchasing or holding the Notes. Any of these activities by us or one or more of our affiliates may affect the levels of the Reference Assets, and therefore, the market value of the Notes.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 


Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the
Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices

Risks Relating to the Reference Assets
 
An Investment in Notes Linked to the Reference Asset Is Subject to Risks Associated with Foreign Securities Markets – The Underlying Index tracks the value of certain foreign equity securities. You should be aware that investments in securities linked to the value of foreign equity securities involve particular risks. The foreign securities markets comprising the Underlying Index may have less liquidity and may be more volatile than U.S. or other securities markets and market developments may affect foreign markets differently from U.S. or other securities markets. Direct or indirect government intervention to stabilize these foreign securities markets, as well as cross-shareholdings in foreign companies, may affect trading prices and volumes in these markets. Also, there is generally less publicly available information about foreign companies than about those U.S. companies that are subject to the reporting requirements of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, and foreign companies are subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and requirements that differ from those applicable to U.S. reporting companies.
Prices of securities in foreign countries are subject to political, economic, financial and social factors that apply in those geographical regions. These factors, which could negatively affect those securities markets, include the possibility of recent or future changes in a foreign government’s economic and fiscal policies, the possible imposition of, or changes in, currency exchange laws or other laws or restrictions applicable to foreign companies or investments in foreign equity securities and the possibility of fluctuations in the rate of exchange between currencies, the possibility of outbreaks of hostility and political instability and the possibility of natural disaster or adverse public health developments in the region. Moreover, foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in important respects such as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources and self-sufficiency.

Notes Linked to the Reference Asset Are Subject to Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk — The payment amount on the Notes will be calculated based on the Reference Asset, and the prices of the applicable stocks are converted into U.S. dollars for purposes of calculating the level of the Reference Asset. As a result, investors in the Notes will be exposed to currency exchange rate risk with respect to each of the currencies represented by the Reference Asset. An investor’s net exposure will depend on the extent to which the currencies represented by the Reference Asset strengthen or weaken against the U.S. dollar and the relative weight of each relevant currency represented by the Reference Asset. If, taking into account such weight, the dollar strengthens against such currencies, the level of the Reference Asset will be adversely affected and the amount payable, if any, at maturity of the Notes may be reduced.

Notes Linked to the MXEF Are Subject to Risks Associated with Emerging Markets — An investment in the Notes will involve risks not generally associated with investments which have no emerging market component.  In particular, many emerging nations are undergoing rapid change, involving the restructuring of economic, political, financial and legal systems. Regulatory and tax environments may be subject to change without review or appeal.  Many emerging markets suffer from underdevelopment of capital markets and tax regulation. The risk of expropriation and nationalization remains a threat. Guarding against such risks is made more difficult by low levels of corporate disclosure and unreliability of economic and financial data.

You Will Not Have Any Rights to the Securities Included in the Reference Assets – As a holder of the Notes, you will not have voting rights or rights to receive cash dividends or other distributions or other rights that holders of securities included in the Reference Asset would have. The Final Level will not reflect any dividends paid on the securities included in the Reference Asset, and accordingly, any positive return on the Notes may be less than the potential positive return on those securities.

The Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Postponement Due to Market Disruption Events and Adjustments – The Redemption Amount and the Valuation Date are subject to adjustment as to each Reference Asset as described in the product prospectus supplement. For a description of what constitutes a market disruption event as well as the consequences of that market disruption event, see “General Terms of the Notes—Market Disruption Events” in the product prospectus supplement.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 


Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the
Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices

INFORMATION REGARDING THE REFERENCE ASSETS
All disclosures contained in this terms supplement regarding the Reference Assets, including, without limitation, their make-up, method of calculation, and changes in their components, have been derived from publicly available sources. The information reflects the policies of, and is subject to change by the applicable index sponsor. Each of these sponsors has no obligation to continue to publish, and may discontinue publication of, the applicable Reference Asset. The consequences of an index sponsor discontinuing publication of a Reference Asset are discussed in the section of the product prospectus supplement entitled “General Terms of the Notes—Unavailability of the Level of the Reference Asset.” Neither we nor RBCCM accepts any responsibility for the calculation, maintenance or publication of either Reference Asset or any successor index.

The MSCI EAFE® Index (“MXEA”)

The MXEA is intended to measure equity market performance in developed market countries, excluding the United States and Canada. The MXEA is a free float-adjusted market capitalization equity index with a base date of December 31, 1969 and an initial value of 100. The MXEA is calculated daily in U.S. dollars and published in real time every 60 seconds during market trading hours. The MXEA currently consists of companies from the following developed countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.K.
The MSCI Emerging Markets Index ("MXEF")
The MXEF is intended to measure equity market performance in the global emerging markets. The index is a free float-adjusted market capitalization index with a base date of December 31, 1987 and an initial value of 100. The index is calculated daily in U.S. dollars and published in real time every 60 seconds during market trading hours. The MXEF currently consists of the following emerging market country indices: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and United Arab Emirates.
As of the close on May 31, 2018, MSCI began a multi-step process to include, in the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, large cap China A shares that are not in trading suspension. As part of the first step of the inclusion process, which resulted from the May 2018 quarterly review, MSCI added such large cap China A shares to the MSCI Emerging Markets Index at 2.5% of their foreign inclusion factor-adjusted market capitalization. In connection with the August 2018 quarterly index review, MSCI implemented the second step of the inclusion process by increasing the foreign inclusion factor-adjusted market capitalization of those existing China A share constituents from 2.5% to 5%. With the implementation of this second step, and the inclusion of additional China A shares in connection with the August 2018 quarterly index review, China A shares were initially expected to represent approximately 0.75% of the MSCI Emerging Markets Index. In February 2019, MSCI announced a three-step process between May 2019 and November 2019 that would increase the number of Chinese A shares in the Index. In January 2021, in response to an executive order from the U.S. government which prohibited investments in certain Chinese securities, MSCI removed 10 Chinese securities from the MSCI Emerging Markets Index, which accounted for less than 1% of the index weight. As of September 30, 2021, Chinese securities represented 33.97% of the MSCI Emerging Markets Index.
General - MSCI Indices
MSCI provides global equity indices intended to measure equity performance in international markets and the MSCI International Equity Indices are designed to serve as global equity performance benchmarks. In constructing these indices, MSCI applies its index construction and maintenance methodology across developed, emerging, and frontier markets.
Constructing the MSCI Global Investable Market Indices. MSCI undertakes an index construction process, which involves:

defining the equity universe;

determining the market investable equity universe for each market;

determining market capitalization size segments for each market;

applying index continuity rules for the MSCI Standard Index;

creating style segments within each size segment within each market; and

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 


Barrier Enhanced Return Notes Linked to the
Lesser Performing of Two Equity Indices


classifying securities under the Global Industry Classification Standard (the “GICS”).
Defining the Equity Universe. The equity universe is defined by:

Identifying Eligible Equity Securities: the equity universe initially looks at securities listed in any of the countries in the MSCI Global Index Series, which will be classified as either Developed Markets (“DM”) or Emerging Markets (“EM”). All listed equity securities, including Real Estate Investment Trusts and certain income trusts in Canada, are eligible for inclusion in the equity universe. Conversely, mutual funds, ETFs, equity derivatives, and most investment trusts, are not eligible for inclusion, are eligible for inclusion in the equity universe. Conversely, mutual funds, ETFs, equity derivatives, and most investment trusts, are not.

Classifying Eligible Securities into the Appropriate Country: each company and its securities (i.e., share classes) are classified in only one country.
Effective with the November 2015 semi-annual index review, companies traded outside of their country of classification (i.e. “foreign listed companies”) will become eligible for inclusion in the MSCI Country Investable Market Indexes along with the applicable MSCI Global Index. In order for a MSCI Country Investable Market Index to be eligible to include foreign listed companies, it must meet the Foreign Listing Materiality Requirement. To meet the Foreign Listing Materiality Requirement, the aggregate market capitalization of all securities represented by foreign listings should represent at least 5% of the free float-adjusted market capitalization of the relevant MSCI Country Investable Market Index.
Determining the Market Investable Equity Universes. A market investable equity universe for a market is derived by applying investability screens to individual companies and securities in the equity universe that are classified in that market. A market is equivalent to a single country, except in DM Europe, where all DM countries in Europe are aggregated into a single market for index construction purposes. Subsequently, individual DM Europe country indices within the MSCI Europe Index are derived from the constituents of the MSCI Europe Index under the global investable market indices methodology.
A security may be listed in the country where it is classified (i.e. local listing) and/or in a different country (i.e. “foreign listing”). Securities may be represented by either a local or foreign listing. A security may be represented by a foreign listing only if:

The security is classified in a country that meets the Foreign Listing Materiality Requirement, and

The security’s foreign listing is traded on an eligible stock exchange of: a DM country if the security is classified in a DM country, a DM or an EM country if the security is classified in an EM country, or a DM or an EM or a FM country if the security is classified in a FM country. Securities in that country may not be represented by a foreign listing in the global investable equity universe if a country does not meet the requirement.
The investability screens used to determine the investable equity universe in each market are as follows:

Equity Universe Minimum Size Requirement: this investability screen is applied at the company level. In order to be included in a market investable equity universe, a company must have the required minimum full market capitalization.

Equity Universe Minimum Free Float−Adjusted Market Capitalization Requirement: this investability screen is applied at the individual security level. To be eligible for inclusion in a market investable equity universe, a security must have a free float−adjusted market capitalization equal to or higher than 50% of the equity universe minimum size requirement.

DM and EM Minimum Liquidity Requirement: this investability screen is applied at the individual security level. To be eligible for inclusion in a market investable equity universe, a security must have adequate liquidity. The twelve-month and three-month Annual Traded Value Ratio (“ATVR”), a measure that screens out extreme daily trading volumes and takes into account the free float−adjusted market capitalization size of securities, together with the three-month frequency of trading are used to measure liquidity. A minimum liquidity level of 20% of three- and twelve-month ATVR and 90% of three-month frequency of trading over the last four consecutive quarters are required for inclusion of a security in a market investable equity universe of a DM, and a minimum liquidity level of 15% of three- and twelve-month ATVR and 80% of three-month frequency of trading over the last four consecutive quarters are required for inclusion of a security in a market investable equity universe of an EM.

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Global Minimum Foreign Inclusion Factor Requirement: this investability screen is applied at the individual security level. To be eligible for inclusion in a market investable equity universe, a security’s Foreign Inclusion Factor (“FIF”) must reach a certain threshold. The FIF of a security is defined as the proportion of shares outstanding that is available for purchase in the public equity markets by international investors. This proportion accounts for the available free float of and/or the foreign ownership limits applicable to a specific security (or company). In general, a security must have an FIF equal to or larger than 0.15 to be eligible for inclusion in a market investable equity universe.

Minimum Length of Trading Requirement: this investability screen is applied at the individual security level. For an initial public offering (“IPO”) to be eligible for inclusion in a market investable equity universe, the new issue must have started trading at least three months before the implementation of a semi−annual index review (as described below). This requirement is applicable to small new issues in all markets. Large IPOs are not subject to the minimum length of trading requirement and may be included in a market investable equity universe and the Standard Index outside of a Quarterly or Semi−Annual Index Review.

Minimum Foreign Room Requirement: this investability screen is applied at the individual security level. For a security that is subject to a foreign ownership limit to be eligible for inclusion in a market investable equity universe, the proportion of shares still available to foreign investors relative to the maximum allowed (referred to as “foreign room”) must be at least 15%.
Defining Market Capitalization Size Segments for Each Market. Once a market investable equity universe is defined, it is segmented into the following size−based indices:

Investable Market Index (Large + Mid + Small);

Standard Index (Large + Mid);

Large Cap Index;

Mid Cap Index; or

Small Cap Index.
Creating the size segment indices in each market involves the following steps:

defining the market coverage target range for each size segment;

determining the global minimum size range for each size segment;

determining the market size−segment cutoffs and associated segment number of companies;

assigning companies to the size segments; and

applying final size−segment investability requirements.
Index Continuity Rules for the Standard Indices. In order to achieve index continuity, as well as to provide some basic level of diversification within a market index, and notwithstanding the effect of other index construction rules described in this section, a minimum number of five constituents will be maintained for a DM Standard Index and a minimum number of three constituents will be maintained for an EM Standard Index.
Creating Style Indices within Each Size Segment. All securities in the investable equity universe are classified into value or growth segments using the MSCI Global Value and Growth methodology.
Classifying Securities under the Global Industry Classification Standard. All securities in the global investable equity universe are assigned to the industry that best describes their business activities. To this end, MSCI has designed, in conjunction with S&P, the GICS. Under the GICS, each company is assigned to one sub−industry according to its principal business activity. Therefore, a company can belong to only one industry grouping at each of the four levels of the GICS.
Calculation Methodology for the Indices
The performance of the indices is a free float weighted average of the U.S. dollar values of its component securities.

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Prices used to calculate the component securities are the official exchange closing prices or prices accepted as such in the relevant market. In the case of a market closure, or if a security does not trade on a specific day or during a specific period, MSCI carries forward the previous day’s price (or latest available closing price). In the event of a market outage resulting in any component security price to be unavailable, MSCI will generally use the last reported price for such component security for the purpose of performance calculation unless MSCI determines that another price is more appropriate based on the circumstances. Closing prices are converted into U.S. dollars, as applicable, using the closing exchange rates calculated by WM/Reuters at 4:00 P.M. London time.
Index Maintenance
The MSCI Global Investable Market Indices are maintained with the objective of reflecting the evolution of the underlying equity markets and segments on a timely basis, while seeking to achieve index continuity, continuous investability of constituents and replicability of the indices, index stability and low index turnover. In particular, index maintenance involves:
(i)
Semi−Annual Index Reviews (“SAIRs”) in May and November of the Size Segment and Global Value and Growth Indices which include:

updating the indices on the basis of a fully refreshed equity universe;

taking buffer rules into consideration for migration of securities across size and style segments; and

updating FIFs and Number of Shares (“NOS”).
(ii)
Quarterly Index Reviews (“QIRs”) in February and August of the Size Segment Indices aimed at:

including significant new eligible securities (such as IPOs that were not eligible for earlier inclusion) in the index;

allowing for significant moves of companies within the Size Segment Indices, using wider buffers than in the SAIR; and

reflecting the impact of significant market events on FIFs and updating NOS.
(iii)
Ongoing Event−Related Changes: changes of this type are generally implemented in the indices as they occur. Significantly large IPOs are included in the indices after the close of the company’s tenth day of trading.
Neither we nor RBC Capital Markets, LLC accepts any responsibility for the calculation, maintenance, or publication of, or for any error, omission, or disruption in, the Reference Assets or any successor to the Reference Assets.
License Agreement
We have entered into a non-exclusive license agreement with MSCI providing for the license to us and certain of our affiliated or subsidiary companies, in exchange for a fee, of the right to use indices owned and published by MSCI (including the Reference Assets) in connection with certain securities, including the Notes offered hereby.
The license agreement between us and MSCI requires that the following language be stated in this document:
THE NOTES ARE NOT SPONSORED, ENDORSED, SOLD OR PROMOTED BY MSCI INC. (“MSCI”), ANY AFFILIATE OF MSCI OR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX.  THE MSCI INDEXES ARE THE EXCLUSIVE PROPERTY OF MSCI.  MSCI AND THE MSCI INDEX NAMES ARE SERVICE MARK(S) OF MSCI OR ITS AFFILIATES AND HAVE BEEN LICENSED FOR USE FOR CERTAIN PURPOSES BY ROYAL BANK OF CANADA AND ITS AFFILIATES.  NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX MAKES ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, TO THE OWNERS OF THE NOTES OR ANY MEMBER OF THE PUBLIC REGARDING THE ADVISABILITY OF INVESTING IN FINANCIAL SECURITIES GENERALLY OR IN THE NOTES PARTICULARLY OR THE ABILITY OF ANY MSCI INDEX TO TRACK CORRESPONDING STOCK MARKET PERFORMANCE.  MSCI OR ITS AFFILIATES ARE THE LICENSORS OF CERTAIN TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES AND OF THE MSCI INDEXES WHICH ARE DETERMINED, COMPOSED AND CALCULATED BY MSCI WITHOUT REGARD TO THE NOTES OR THE ISSUER OR OWNER OF THE NOTES.  NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX HAS ANY OBLIGATION TO TAKE THE NEEDS OF THE ISSUERS OR

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OWNERS OF THE NOTES INTO CONSIDERATION IN DETERMINING, COMPOSING OR CALCULATING THE MSCI INDEXES.  NEITHER MSCI, ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX IS RESPONSIBLE FOR OR HAS PARTICIPATED IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE TIMING OF, PRICES AT, OR QUANTITIES OF THE NOTES TO BE ISSUED OR IN THE DETERMINATION OR CALCULATION OF THE EQUATION BY WHICH THE NOTES ARE REDEEMABLE FOR CASH.  NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, THE MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX HAS ANY OBLIGATION OR LIABILITY TO THE OWNERS OF THE NOTES IN CONNECTION WITH THE ADMINISTRATION, MARKETING OR OFFERING OF THE NOTES.
ALTHOUGH MSCI SHALL OBTAIN INFORMATION FOR INCLUSION IN OR FOR USE IN THE CALCULATION OF THE MSCI INDEXES FROM SOURCES WHICH MSCI CONSIDERS RELIABLE, NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX WARRANTS OR GUARANTEES THE ORIGINALITY, ACCURACY AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN.  NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX MAKES ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY LICENSEE, LICENSEE’S CUSTOMERS OR COUNTERPARTIES, ISSUERS OF THE NOTES, OWNERS OF THE NOTES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY, FROM THE USE OF ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN IN CONNECTION WITH THE RIGHTS LICENSED HEREUNDER OR FOR ANY OTHER USE. NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX SHALL HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS OR INTERRUPTIONS OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY MSCI INDEX OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. FURTHER, NEITHER MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES NOR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX MAKES ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, AND MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES AND ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX HEREBY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WITH RESPECT TO ANY MSCI INDEX AND ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL MSCI, ANY OF ITS AFFILIATES OR ANY OTHER PARTY INVOLVED IN, OR RELATED TO, MAKING OR COMPILING ANY MSCI INDEX HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY OTHER DAMAGES (INCLUDING LOST PROFITS) EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
No purchaser, seller or holder of the Notes, or any other person or entity, should use or refer to any MSCI trade name, trade mark or service mark rights to sponsor, endorse, market or promote the Notes without first contacting MSCI to determine whether MSCI’s permission is required. Under no circumstances may any person or entity claim affiliation with MSCI without the prior written permission of MSCI.

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Historical Information
The graph below sets forth the information relating to the historical performance of the MXEA for the period from January 1, 2011 through October 8, 2021.
We obtained the information regarding the historical performance of the MXEA in the graph below from Bloomberg Financial Markets.
We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the information obtained from Bloomberg Financial Markets. The historical performance of the MXEA should not be taken as an indication of its future performance, and no assurance can be given as to the Final Level of the MXEA. We cannot give you assurance that the performance of the MXEA will not result in the loss of all or any part of your positive return on your investment.
MSCI EAFE® Index (“MXEA”)
PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS.

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Historical Information
The graph below sets forth the information relating to the historical performance of the MXEF for the period from January 1, 2011 through October 8, 2021.
We obtained the information regarding the historical performance of the MXEF in the graph below from Bloomberg Financial Markets.
We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the information obtained from Bloomberg Financial Markets. The historical performance of the MXEF should not be taken as an indication of its future performance, and no assurance can be given as to the Final Level of the MXEF. We cannot give you assurance that the performance of the MXEF will not result in the loss of all or any part of your positive return on your investment.
MSCI Emerging Markets Index (“MXEF”)
PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS.

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SUPPLEMENTAL DISCUSSION OF
U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES
The following disclosure supplements, and to the extent inconsistent supersedes, the discussion in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences.”
Under Section 871(m) of the Code, a “dividend equivalent” payment is treated as a dividend from sources within the United States. Such payments generally would be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax if paid to a non-U.S. holder. Under U.S. Treasury Department regulations, payments (including deemed payments) with respect to equity-linked instruments (“ELIs”) that are “specified ELIs” may be treated as dividend equivalents if such specified ELIs reference an interest in an “underlying security,” which is generally any interest in an entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes if a payment with respect to such interest could give rise to a U.S. source dividend. However, the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) has issued guidance that states that the U.S. Treasury Department and the IRS intend to amend the effective dates of the U.S. Treasury Department regulations to provide that withholding on dividend equivalent payments will not apply to specified ELIs that are not delta-one instruments and that are issued before January 1, 2023. Based on our determination that the Notes are not delta-one instruments, non-U.S. holders should not be subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments, if any, under the Notes. However, it is possible that the Notes could be treated as deemed reissued for U.S. federal income tax purposes upon the occurrence of certain events affecting the Reference Assets or the Notes (for example, upon a Reference Asset rebalancing), and following such occurrence the Notes could be treated as subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments. Non-U.S. holders that enter, or have entered, into other transactions in respect of the Reference Assets or the Notes should consult their tax advisors as to the application of the dividend equivalent withholding tax in the context of the Notes and their other transactions. If any payments are treated as dividend equivalents subject to withholding, we (or the applicable withholding agent) would be entitled to withhold taxes without being required to pay any additional amounts with respect to amounts so withheld.

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SUPPLEMENTAL PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)
We expect that delivery of the Notes will be made against payment for the Notes on or about October 29, 2021, which is the third (3rd) business day following the Trade Date (this settlement cycle being referred to as “T+3”). See “Plan of Distribution” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021. For additional information as to the relationship between us and RBCCM, please see the section “Plan of Distribution—Conflicts of Interest” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021.
We expect to deliver the Notes on a date that is greater than two business days following the Trade Date. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the Notes more than two business days prior to the original issue date will be required to specify alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
In the initial offering of the Notes, they will be offered to investors at a purchase price equal to par, except with respect to certain accounts as indicated on the cover page of this document.
The value of the Notes shown on your account statement may be based on RBCCM’s estimate of the value of the Notes if RBCCM or another of our affiliates were to make a market in the Notes (which it is not obligated to do). That estimate will be based upon the price that RBCCM may pay for the Notes in light of then prevailing market conditions, our creditworthiness and transaction costs. For a period of approximately 9 months after the issue date of the Notes, the value of the Notes that may be shown on your account statement may be higher than RBCCM’s estimated value of the Notes at that time. This is because the estimated value of the Notes will not include the underwriting discount and our hedging costs and profits; however, the value of the Notes shown on your account statement during that period may be a higher amount, reflecting the addition of RBCCM’s underwriting discount and our estimated costs and profits from hedging the Notes. This excess is expected to decrease over time until the end of this period. After this period, if RBCCM repurchases your Notes, it expects to do so at prices that reflect their estimated value.
We may use this terms supplement in the initial sale of the Notes. In addition, RBCCM or another of our affiliates may use this terms supplement in a market-making transaction in the Notes after their initial sale. Unless we or our agent informs the purchaser otherwise in the confirmation of sale, this terms supplement is being used in a market-making transaction.

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STRUCTURING THE NOTES
The Notes are our debt securities, the return on which is linked to the performance of the Reference Assets. As is the case for all of our debt securities, including our structured notes, the economic terms of the Notes reflect our actual or perceived creditworthiness at the time of pricing. In addition, because structured notes result in increased operational, funding and liability management costs to us, we typically borrow the funds under these Notes at a rate that is more favorable to us than the rate that we might pay for a conventional fixed or floating rate debt security of comparable maturity. Using this relatively lower implied borrowing rate rather than the secondary market rate, is a factor that is likely to reduce the initial estimated value of the Notes at the time their terms are set. Unlike the estimated value that will be included in the final pricing supplement, any value of the Notes determined for purposes of a secondary market transaction may be based on a different funding rate, which may result in a lower value for the Notes than if our initial internal funding rate were used.
In order to satisfy our payment obligations under the Notes, we may choose to enter into certain hedging arrangements (which may include call options, put options or other derivatives) on the issue date with RBCCM or one of our other subsidiaries. The terms of these hedging arrangements take into account a number of factors, including our creditworthiness, interest rate movements, the volatility of the Reference Assets, and the tenor of the Notes. The economic terms of the Notes and their initial estimated value depend in part on the terms of these hedging arrangements.
The lower implied borrowing rate is a factor that reduces the economic terms of the Notes to you. The initial offering price of the Notes also reflects the underwriting commission and our estimated hedging costs. These factors result in the initial estimated value for the Notes on the Trade Date being less than their public offering price. See “Selected Risk Considerations—The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Will Be Less than the Price to the Public” above.


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