Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand, money market funds and highly liquid investments with an original maturity date of 90 days or less from the date of purchase. The fair value of cash equivalents approximated their carrying value as of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021. The Company has its cash and cash equivalents with a large creditworthy financial institution and the balance exceeded federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts, and management believes the Company is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents.
|Marketable Investment Securities
Marketable Investment Securities
The Company’s marketable investment securities are comprised of investments in certificates of deposit and U.S. treasury bills. The Company determines the appropriate classification of its marketable investment securities at the time of purchase and re-evaluates such designation at each balance sheet date. The Company has classified and accounted for its marketable investment securities as available-for-sale securities as the Company may sell these securities at any time for use in its current operations or for other purposes, even prior to maturity. As a result, the Company classifies its marketable investment securities, including securities with stated maturities beyond twelve months, within current assets in the consolidated balance sheets. Any unrealized gains or losses are immaterial.
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount (net of allowance) and do not bear interest. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts for amounts the Company does not expect to collect. In establishing the required allowance, management considers historical losses, current market condition, customers’ financial condition, the age of receivables, and current payment patterns. Account balances are written off against the allowance once the receivable is deemed uncollectible. Recoveries of trade receivables previously written off are recorded when collected. At September 30, 2022, total accounts receivable was $8,969,317 with an allowance for uncollectable accounts of $1,007,653 resulting in a net amount of $7,961,664. At December 31, 2021, total accounts receivable was $21,508,779 with an allowance for uncollectable accounts of $669,597 resulting in a net amount of $20,839,182.
Our equity method investments are initially recorded at cost and are included in other long-term assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet. We adjust the carrying value of our investment based on our share of the earnings or losses in the periods which they are reported by the investee until the carrying amount is zero. The earnings or losses are included in other income (expense) in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net-realizable value. Inventory cost is determined on a first-in first-out basis that approximates average cost in accordance with ASC 330-10-30-12. At September 30, 2022, the Company had $5,441,726 in inventory, of which $1,283,850 was finished goods and $4,157,876 was raw materials. At December 31, 2021, the Company had $2,004,169 in inventory, of which $983,088 was finished goods and $1,021,081 was raw materials. The Company establishes reserves to reduce slow-moving, obsolete, or unusable inventories to their estimated useful or scrap values.
|Property and Equipment
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the property, generally from to five years. Repairs and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred except when such repairs significantly add to the useful life or productive capacity of the asset, in which case the repairs are capitalized.
The Company reviews its long-lived assets, including property and equipment, for impairment whenever an event or change in facts and circumstances indicates that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. Recoverability of these assets is measured by comparing the carrying amount to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated. If the carrying amount exceeds the undiscounted cash flows, the assets are determined to be impaired and an impairment charge is recognized as the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds fair value.
We estimate the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the net of the acquisition date fair values of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. Such valuations require management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets. Management’s estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable, and as a result, actual results may differ from estimates.
As described in “Recently Adopted Accounting Standards” below, the Company adopted ASC 842, Leases (“ASC 842”) effective January 1, 2022. Under ASC 842, the Company determines if an arrangement is or contains a lease at inception by assessing whether the arrangement contains an identified asset and whether it has the right to control the identified asset. Right-of-use (ROU) assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Lease liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of future lease payments over the lease term. ROU assets are based on the measurement of the lease liability and also include any lease payments made prior to or on lease commencement and exclude lease incentives and initial direct costs incurred, as applicable.
As the implicit rate in the Company’s leases is generally unknown, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the lease commencement date in determining the present value of future lease payments. The Company considers its credit risk, term of the lease, total lease payments and adjusts for the impacts of collateral, as necessary, when calculating its incremental borrowing rates. The Company evaluates renewal options at lease inception and on an ongoing basis and includes renewal options that it is reasonably certain to exercise in its expected lease terms when classifying leases and measuring lease liabilities. Lease costs for the Company’s operating leases are recognized on a straight-line basis within operating expenses and cost of revenue over the reasonably assured lease term.
The Company has elected to not separate lease and non-lease components for leases of office space and, as a result, accounts for any lease and non-lease components for office space as a single lease component, to the extent they are fixed. Non-lease components that are not fixed are expensed as incurred as variable lease payments. The Company’s office leases typically include non-lease components such as common-area maintenance costs. The Company has also elected to not apply the recognition requirement to any leases within its existing classes of assets with a term of 12 months or less.
The Company generates revenue from product sales and license sales. The Company recognizes revenue when all of the following criteria are satisfied: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when, or as the Company satisfies each performance obligation.
The Company constrains revenue by giving consideration to factors that could otherwise lead to a probable reversal of revenue. The Company records any payments received from customers prior to the Company fulfilling its performance obligation(s) as deferred revenue.
Deferred revenue primarily consists of payments received from customers prior to the Company fulfilling its performance obligation of providing the product. When this occurs, the Company records a contract liability as deferred revenue. Deferred revenue is recognized as revenue as the related performance obligations are satisfied.
|Research and Development
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed when incurred. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, the Company expensed $5,037,461 and $12,698,632 of research and development costs, respectively. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company expensed $5,893,350 and $12,779,573, respectively.
The Company has granted stock-based awards, including restricted stock, stock options, stock warrants and restricted stock units (“RSUs”), to its employees, certain consultants and members of its board of directors. The Company records stock-based compensation based on the grant date fair value of the awards and recognizes the fair value of those awards as expense using the straight-line method over the requisite service period of the award. The Company estimates the grant date fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. When an award is forfeited prior to the vesting date, the Company recognizes an adjustment for the previously recognized expense in the period of the forfeiture.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with the liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities represent the tax effect of temporary differences between financial reporting and tax reporting measured at enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company recognizes only the impact of tax positions that, based on their technical merits, are more likely than not to be sustained upon an audit by the taxing authority.
Valuation allowances are provided when it is more-likely-than-not that some or all of the deferred income tax assets may not be realized. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, the Company has considered its historical levels of income, expectations of future taxable income and ongoing tax planning strategies.
Developing the provision for income taxes, including the effective tax rate and analysis of potential tax exposure items, if any, requires significant judgment and expertise in federal and state income tax laws, regulations and strategies, including the determination of deferred income tax assets and liabilities and any estimated valuation allowances deemed necessary to value deferred income tax assets. Judgments and tax strategies are subject to audit by various taxing authorities. While the Company believes it has no significant uncertain income tax positions in the consolidated financial statements, adverse determinations by these taxing authorities could have a material adverse effect on the consolidated financial positions, result of operations, or cash flows.
|Net Income per Share
Basic net income or loss per common share is computed by dividing net income or loss applicable to common shareholders by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during each period.
Diluted net income or loss per share is computed by dividing net income or loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period increased by common shares that could be issued upon conversion or exercise of other outstanding securities to the extent those additional common shares would be dilutive. The dilutive effect of potentially dilutive securities is reflected in diluted net income or loss per share by application of the treasury stock method. During periods when the Company is in a net loss position, basic net loss per share is the same as diluted net loss per share as the effects of potentially dilutive securities are anti-dilutive.
|Concentrations Risk and Significant Customers
Concentrations Risk and Significant Customers
The Company had certain customers which are each responsible for generating 10% or more of the total revenue for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022. One customer accounted for approximately 52% of total revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2022, and two customers together accounted for approximately 47% of total revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2022. Two customers together accounted for approximately 56% of total revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2021, and three customers together accounted for approximately 49% of total revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2021.
Four customers accounted for more than 10% of accounts receivable at September 30, 2022 and two customers accounted for more than 10% of accounts receivable at December 31, 2021. These customers together accounted for approximately 67% and 66% of accounts receivable at September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
|Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) that are adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. If not discussed, management believes that the impact of recently issued standards, which are not yet effective, will not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements upon adoption.
|Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326) (“ASU 2016-13”), which requires the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for certain financial instruments, which includes the Company’s accounts receivable. ASU 2016-13 replaces the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected loss methodology, which will result in more timely recognition of credit losses. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 on January 1, 2022. The adoption did not have an impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) (“ASU 2016-02”), which requires a lessee to recognize most leases on the balance sheet as lease liabilities with corresponding right-of-use assets. The objective of ASU 2016-02 is to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. The recognized lease liabilities and lease assets represent the obligation to make payments and the right to use or control the use of a specified asset for the lease term, respectively.
On January 1, 2022, the Company adopted Topic 842 using the modified retrospective approach with the effective date as the date of initial application. Consequently, results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 are presented under Topic 842. No prior period amounts were adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with previous lease guidance, ASC Topic 840, Leases. The Company elected the practical expedients available under the provisions of the new standard, including not reassessing whether expired or existing contracts are or contain leases; not reassessing the classification of expired or existing leases; and not reassessing the initial direct cost for any existing leases. Upon adoption, the Company recognized an operating lease liability of $626,699 and a corresponding operating right-of-use asset of $681,327.