Supplement to Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) dated March 1, 2022



Supplement to SAI dated December 1, 2022



1.The following replaces “Emerging Market Investments” in “Additional Information About Investment Strategies and Risks”:


Emerging Market Investments The risks described under “Foreign Investments” herein generally are heightened in connection with investments in emerging markets.  Also, investments in securities of issuers domiciled in countries with emerging capital markets may involve certain additional risks that do not generally apply to investments in securities of issuers in more developed capital markets, such as (i) low or non-existent trading volume, resulting in a lack of liquidity and increased volatility in prices for such securities, as compared to securities of comparable issuers in more developed capital markets; (ii) uncertain national policies and social, political and economic instability, increasing the potential for expropriation of assets, confiscatory taxation, high rates of inflation or unfavorable diplomatic developments; (iii) possible fluctuations in exchange rates, differing legal systems and the existence or possible imposition of exchange controls, custodial restrictions or other foreign or U.S. governmental laws or restrictions applicable to such investments; (iv) governmental actions or policies that may limit investment opportunities, such as restrictions on investment in, or required divestment of, certain issuers or industries; and (v) the lack or relatively early development of legal structures governing private and foreign investments and private property. Governmental actions may effectively restrict or eliminate the Fund’s ability to purchase or sell investments in emerging market countries, and thus may make them less liquid or more difficult to value, or may force the Fund to sell or otherwise dispose of such investments at inopportune times or prices. Trading practices in emerging markets also may be less developed, resulting in inefficiencies relative to trading in more developed markets, which may result in increased transaction costs.  
  Repatriation of investment income, capital and proceeds of sales by foreign investors may require governmental registration and/or approval in emerging market countries.  There can be no assurance that repatriation of income, gain or initial capital from these countries will occur.  In addition to withholding taxes on investment income, some countries with emerging markets may impose differential capital gains taxes on foreign investors.  
  Political and economic structures in emerging market countries may undergo significant evolution and rapid development, and these countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries. In such a dynamic environment, there can be no assurance that any or all of these capital markets will continue to present viable investment opportunities. In the past, governments of such nations have expropriated substantial amounts of private property, and most claims of the property owners have never been fully settled. There is no assurance that such expropriations will not reoccur. In such an event, it is possible that the entire value of an investment in the affected market could be lost. In addition, unanticipated political or social developments may affect the value of investments in these countries and the availability of additional investments. The small size and inexperience of the securities markets in certain of these countries and the limited volume of trading in securities in these countries may make investments in the countries illiquid and more volatile than investments in developed markets.
  Also, there may be less publicly available information about issuers in emerging markets than would be available about issuers in more developed capital markets, and such issuers may not be subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and requirements comparable to those to which U.S. companies are subject. In certain countries with emerging capital markets, reporting standards vary widely. As a result, traditional investment measurements used in the United States, such as price/earnings ratios, may not be applicable. Certain emerging market securities may be held by a limited number of persons. This may adversely affect the timing and pricing of the acquisition or disposal of securities.  The prices at which investments may be acquired may be affected by trading by persons with material non-public information and by securities transactions by brokers in anticipation of transactions in particular securities.


  Practices in relation to settlement of securities transactions in emerging markets involve higher risks than those in developed markets, in part because brokers and counterparties in such markets may be less well capitalized, and custody and registration of assets in some countries may be unreliable. The possibility of fraud, negligence, undue influence being exerted by the issuer or refusal to recognize ownership exists in some emerging markets.  As an alternative to investing directly in emerging markets, exposure may be obtained through derivative investments.
  Additionally, there may be difficulties in obtaining and/or enforcing legal judgements against non-U.S. companies and non-U.S. persons, including company directors or officers, in foreign jurisdictions.  Shareholders of emerging market issuers often have limited rights and few practical remedies in jurisdictions located in emerging markets.  In addition, due to jurisdictional limitations, U.S. authorities (e.g., the SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice) may be limited in their ability to enforce regulatory or legal obligations in emerging market countries. Such risks vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and company to company.

Investments in China may involve a high risk of currency fluctuations, currency non-convertibility, interest rate fluctuations and higher rates of inflation as a result of internal social unrest or conflicts with other countries. Increasing trade tensions, particularly regarding trading arrangements between the U.S. and China, may result in additional tariffs or other actions that could have an adverse impact on an investment in the China region, including but not limited to restrictions on investments in certain Chinese companies or industries considered important to national interests, restrictions on monetary repatriation, intervention in the financial markets, such as by imposing trading restrictions, or banning or curtailing short selling, or other adverse government actions. Accounting, auditing, financial, and other reporting standards, practices and disclosure requirements in China are different, sometimes in fundamental ways, from those in the United States and certain western European countries. For example, there is less regulatory oversite of financial reporting by companies domiciled in China than for companies in the United States.

To the extent the Fund invests in securities of Chinese issuers, it may be subject to certain risks associated with variable interest entities (“VIEs”). VIEs are widely used by China-based companies where China restricts or prohibits foreign ownership in certain sectors, including telecommunications, technology, media, and education. In a typical VIE structure, a shell company is set up in an offshore jurisdiction and enters into contractual arrangements with a China-based operating company. The VIE lists on a U.S. exchange and investors then purchase the stock issued by a VIE. The VIE structure is designed to provide investors with economic exposure to the Chinese company that replicates equity ownership, without providing actual equity ownership.

VIE structures do not offer the same level of investor protections as direct ownership and investors may experience losses if VIE structures are altered, contractual disputes emerge, or the legal status of the VIE structure is prohibited under Chinese law. Additionally, significant portions of the Chinese securities markets may also become rapidly illiquid, as Chinese issuers have the ability to suspend the trading of their equity securities, and have shown a willingness to exercise that option in response to market volatility and other events. The legal status of the VIE structure remains uncertain under Chinese law. There is risk that the Chinese government may cease to tolerate such VIE structures at any time or impose new restrictions on the structure, in each case either generally or with respect to specific issuers. If new laws, rules or regulations relating to VIE structures are adopted, investors, including the Fund, could suffer substantial, detrimental, and possibly permanent losses with little or no recourse available. In addition, VIEs may be delisted if they do not meet U.S. accounting standards and auditor oversight requirements. Delisting would significantly decrease the liquidity and value of the securities of these companies, decrease the ability of the Fund to invest in such securities and may increase the expenses of the Fund if it is required to seek alternative markets in which to invest in such securities.

  The foregoing risks may be even greater in frontier markets. Frontier markets are countries with investable stock markets that are less established than those in the emerging markets. The economies of frontier market countries generally are smaller than those of traditional emerging market countries, and frontier capital markets and legal systems are typically less developed.



Sukuk. The Fund may invest in Sukuk, which are foreign or emerging market securities based on Islamic principles. Sukuk are securities with cash flows similar to conventional bonds, issued by an issuer, which is usually an SPV incorporated by the sovereign or corporate entity seeking financing, to obtain an upfront payment in exchange for an income stream and a future promise to return capital. Sukuk are designed to comply with Islamic religious law, commonly known as Sharia and, accordingly, do not pay interest. Instead, Sukuk securities represent a contractual obligation of the issuer or issuing vehicle to make periodic distributions (such as income or other periodic payments) to the investor on pre-defined distribution dates and to return capital on a specified date, and such contractual payment obligation is linked to the issuer or issuing vehicle and not from interest on the investor's money for Sukuk. Sukuk may be linked to income streams relating to tangible assets, but even in respect of such Sukuk, the Fund will not have a direct interest in, or recourse to, the underlying asset or pool of assets.

In the event of a default or the insolvency of the issuer, the resolution process can be expected take longer than for conventional bonds. Sukuk remain relatively new instruments, and evolving interpretations of Islamic law by courts, regulators and prominent scholars may affect liquidity, prices, free transferability and the ability and willingness of issuers of Sukuk to make payments in ways that cannot now be foreseen. In addition, issuers have, in the past, challenged the Islamic compliance of certificates. If any such or analogous events should occur, the Fund may be required to hold its Sukuk for longer than intended, even if their value or other condition is deteriorating. In such circumstances, the Fund may not be able to achieve expected returns on its investment in Sukuk or any returns at all.

Issuers of Sukuk may include SPVs established by corporations and financial institutions, foreign governments and agencies of foreign governments. Underlying assets may include, without limitation, real estate (developed and undeveloped), lease contracts, forward-sale commodity contracts and machinery and equipment. Although the Sukuk market has grown significantly in recent years, there may be times when the market is illiquid and where it is difficult for the Fund to make an investment in or dispose of Sukuk at the desired time. Sukuk involve many of the same risks that conventional bonds incur, such as credit risk and interest rate risk, as well as the risks associated with foreign or emerging market securities. In addition to these risks, there are certain risks specific to Sukuk, such as those relating to their structures. Furthermore, the global Sukuk market is significantly smaller than conventional bond markets, which may impact liquidity and the ability for the Fund to sell Sukuk at a desired time.

The unique characteristics of Sukuk may lead to uncertainties regarding their tax treatment within the Fund. In light of tax requirements applicable to the Fund, it may be necessary or advisable for the Fund to sell one or more Sukuk (or another investment) sooner than otherwise anticipated. As a result, the Fund may incur taxable gains or investment losses, as well as costs associated with such transaction.










December 9, 2022