Registration Nos. 033-05646/811-4519

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933  /X/

       

Post-Effective Amendment No. 58     /X/

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 /X/

Amendment No. 59      /X/

T. Rowe Price Capital Appreciation Fund, Inc.

Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter

100 East Pratt Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202
Address of Principal Executive Offices

410-345-2000
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code

David Oestreicher

100 East Pratt Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202
Name and Address of Agent for Service

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering November 29, 2023

 It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):

// Immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)

/X/ On October 1, 2023 pursuant to paragraph (b)

// 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)

// On (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)

// 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)

// On (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485


 If appropriate, check the following box:

// This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 


     

PROSPECTUS

October 1, 2023

 
 

T. ROWE PRICE

 

Capital Appreciation and Income Fund

 

PRCFX

PRCHX

Investor Class

I Class

 
  
 

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has not approved or disapproved these securities or passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 
  
 


Table of Contents

    

1

SUMMARY

  
 

Capital Appreciation and Income Fund 1

2

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

 

Management of the Fund 8

More Information About the Fund’s
Investment Objective(s), Strategies,
and Risks
 10

Portfolio Turnover 18

Disclosure of Fund Portfolio Information 18

3

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS
IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

 

Investing with T. Rowe Price 19

Available Share Classes 19

Distribution and Shareholder
Servicing Fees
 21

Account Service Fee 23

Policies for Opening an Account 24

Pricing of Shares and Transactions 26

Investing Directly with T. Rowe Price 27

Investing Through a Financial
Intermediary
 34

General Policies Relating to Transactions 36

Contacting T. Rowe Price 43

Information on Distributions and Taxes 45

Rights Reserved by the Funds 53


   

SUMMARY

 

1

  

Investment Objective(s)

The fund seeks total return through a combination of income and capital appreciation.

Fees and Expenses

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the fund. You may also incur brokerage commissions and other charges when buying or selling shares of the fund, which are not reflected in the table or example below.

     

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

  
 

Investor
Class

I
Class

Shareholder fees (fees paid directly from your investment)

Maximum account fee

$20

a 

Annual fund operating expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a
percentage of the value of your investment)

Management fees

0.45

%

0.45

%

   

Distribution and service (12b-1) fees

 

 
   

Other expenses

1.25

b 

1.23

b,d 

   

Total annual fund operating expenses

1.70

 

1.68

 
   

Fee waiver/expense reimbursement

(1.05

)c

(1.18

)d

   

Total annual fund operating expenses after fee waiver/expense reimbursement

0.65

c 

0.50

d 

a Subject to certain exceptions and account minimms, accounts are charged an annual $20 fee.

b Other expenses are estimated for the current fiscal year.

c T. Rowe Price has contractually agreed (through April 30, 2025) to waive its fees and/or bear any expenses (excluding interest; expenses related to borrowings, taxes, and brokerage; nonrecurring, extraordinary expenses; and acquired fund fees and expenses) that would cause the class’ ratio of expenses to average daily net assets to exceed 0.65%. The agreement may only be terminated at any time after April 30, 2025, with approval by the fund’s Board of Directors. Fees waived and expenses paid under this agreement (and any applicable prior limitations) are subject to reimbursement to T. Rowe Price by the class whenever the class’ expense ratio is below 0.65%. However, the class will not reimburse T. Rowe Price more than three years from the date such amounts were initially waived or paid. The class may only reimburse T. Rowe Price if the reimbursement does not cause the class’ expense ratio (after the reimbursement is taken into account) to exceed the class’ current expense limitation (or the expense limitation in place at the time the amounts were waived or paid).


  

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d T. Rowe Price has contractually agreed (through April 30, 2025) to pay the operating expenses of the fund’s I Class excluding management fees; interest; expenses related to borrowings, taxes, and brokerage; nonrecurring, extraordinary expenses; and acquired fund fees and expenses (I Class Operating Expenses), to the extent the I Class Operating Expenses exceed 0.05% of the class’ average daily net assets. The agreement may only be terminated at any time after April 30, 2025, with approval by the fund’s Board of Directors. Any expenses paid under this agreement (and any applicable prior limitations) are subject to reimbursement to T. Rowe Price by the class whenever the I Class Operating Expenses are below 0.05%. However, the class will not reimburse T. Rowe Price more than three years from the date such amounts were initially waived or paid. The class may only reimburse T. Rowe Price if the reimbursement does not cause the I Class Operating Expenses (after the reimbursement is taken into account) to exceed the current expense limitation on I Class Operating Expenses (or the expense limitation in place at the time the amounts were waived or paid).

Example This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds. The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your shares at the end of those periods, that your investment has a 5% return each year, and that the fund’s operating expenses remain the same. The example also assumes that any current expense limitation arrangement remains in place for the period noted in the previous table; therefore, the figures have been adjusted to reflect fee waivers or expense reimbursements only in the periods for which the expense limitation arrangement is expected to continue. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

   
 

1 year

3 years

Investor Class

$66

$361

I Class

51

333

Portfolio Turnover The fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when the fund’s shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, affect the fund’s performance. Because the fund commenced operations on or following the date of this prospectus, there is no portfolio turnover information provided for the fund.

Investments, Risks, and Performance

Principal Investment Strategies

The fund normally invests 50-70% of its net assets in fixed income and other debt instruments, including corporate and government bonds, mortgage- and asset-backed securities, convertible bonds, and bank loans (which represent an interest in amounts owed by a borrower to a syndicate of lenders). The fund normally invests 30-50% of its net assets in common and preferred stocks.

We work as hard to reduce risk as to maximize gains and may seek to realize gains rather than lose them in market declines. In addition, we search for attractive risk/reward values among all types of securities. The portion of the fund invested in a type of particular security, such as stocks or bonds, results largely from a case-by-case analysis of each instrument and will vary based on market conditions. When selecting stocks, the adviser generally focuses on finding companies whose stocks are expected to provide an attractive return relative to the company’s


  

SUMMARY

3

associated risk. There are no limits on the market capitalization of the issuers of the stocks in which the fund invests.

The fund follows a similar security selection process with respect to fixed income and other debt instruments. When deciding whether to adjust duration, credit risk exposure, or allocations among the various asset classes, the adviser generally focuses on finding holdings with the best risk-adjusted return potential while emphasizing income generation. For example, the adviser may examine characteristics and relative prospects among government and agency obligations; bank loans; and corporate bonds, including those rated noninvestment grade (BB and lower, or an equivalent rating), commonly known as high yield “junk” bonds. The fund may purchase fixed income instruments of any maturity and there are no overall maturity or duration restrictions for the fixed income portion of the portfolio. In addition, there are no limits on the fund’s investments in debt instruments that are rated noninvestment grade, including distressed and defaulted securities.

High yield bond issuers often include small or relatively new companies lacking the history or capital to merit investment-grade status, former blue chip companies downgraded because of financial problems, companies electing to borrow heavily to finance or avoid a takeover or buyout, and firms with heavy debt loads. While high yield corporate bonds are typically issued with a fixed interest rate, bank loans have floating interest rates that reset periodically (typically quarterly or monthly). Bank loans represent amounts borrowed by companies or other entities from banks and other lenders. The fund will primarily acquire floating rate loans as an assignment from another lender who holds a floating rate loan.

Principal Risks

As with any fund, there is no guarantee that the fund will achieve its objective(s). The fund’s share price fluctuates, which means you could lose money by investing in the fund. The principal risks of investing in this fund, which may be even greater in bad or uncertain market conditions, are summarized as follows:

Fixed income markets: Economic and other market developments can adversely affect the fixed income securities markets. At times, participants in these markets may develop concerns about the ability of certain issuers of debt instruments to make timely principal and interest payments, or they may develop concerns about the ability of financial institutions that make markets in certain debt instruments to facilitate an orderly market. Those concerns could cause increased volatility and reduced liquidity in particular securities or in the overall fixed income markets and the related derivatives markets. A lack of liquidity or other adverse credit market conditions may hamper the fund’s ability to sell the debt instruments in which it invests or to find and purchase suitable debt instruments.

Stock investing: Stocks generally fluctuate in value more than bonds and may decline significantly over short time periods. There is a chance that stock prices overall will decline because stock markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising and falling prices. The value of stocks held by the fund may decline due to general weakness or volatility in the stock


  

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markets in which the fund invests or because of factors that affect a particular company or industry.

Market conditions: The value of the fund’s investments may decrease, sometimes rapidly or unexpectedly, due to factors affecting an issuer held by the fund, particular industries, or the overall securities markets. A variety of factors can increase the volatility of the fund’s holdings and markets generally, including economic, political, or regulatory developments, recessions, inflation, rapid interest rate changes, war, military conflict, acts of terrorism, natural disasters, and outbreaks of infectious illnesses or other widespread public health issues such as the coronavirus pandemic and related governmental and public responses (including sanctions). Certain events may cause instability across global markets, including reduced liquidity and disruptions in trading markets, while some events may affect certain geographic regions, countries, sectors, and industries more significantly than others. Government intervention in markets may impact interest rates, market volatility, and security pricing. These adverse developments may cause broad declines in market value due to short-term market movements or for significantly longer periods during more prolonged market downturns.

Credit quality: An issuer of a debt instrument could suffer an adverse change in financial condition that results in a payment default (failure to make scheduled interest or principal payments), rating downgrade, or inability to meet a financial obligation. Securities that are rated below investment grade carry greater risk of default and should be considered speculative.

Junk investing: Investments in bonds that are rated below investment grade, commonly referred to as junk bonds, and loans that are rated below investment grade, expose the fund to greater volatility and credit risk than investments in securities that are rated investment grade. Issuers of junk bonds and loans are usually not as strong financially and are more likely to suffer an adverse change in financial condition that would result in the inability to meet a financial obligation. As a result, bonds and loans rated below investment grade carry a higher risk of default and should be considered speculative.

Interest rates: The prices of, and the income generated by, debt instruments held by the fund may be affected by changes in interest rates. A rise in interest rates typically causes the price of a fixed rate debt instrument to fall and its yield to rise. Conversely, a decline in interest rates typically causes the price of a fixed rate debt instrument to rise and the yield to fall. The prices and yields of inflation-linked bonds are directly impacted by the rate of inflation as well as changes in interest rates. Generally, funds with longer weighted average maturities and durations carry greater interest rate risk. Changes in monetary policy made by central banks and/or governments, such as the discontinuation and replacement of benchmark rates, are likely to affect the interest rates or yields of the securities in which the fund invests.

Bank loans: Investments in bank loans expose the fund to additional risks beyond those normally associated with more traditional debt instruments. The fund’s ability to receive payments in connection with a loan depends primarily on the financial condition of the borrower and whether or not a loan is secured by collateral, although there is no assurance that the collateral securing a loan will be sufficient to satisfy the loan obligation. In addition, bank


  

SUMMARY

5

loans often have contractual restrictions on resale, which can delay the sale and adversely impact the sale price. Transactions involving bank loans may have significantly longer settlement periods than more traditional investments (settlement can take longer than 7 days) and often involve borrowers whose financial condition is troubled or highly leveraged, which increases the risk that the fund may not receive its proceeds in a timely manner or that the fund may incur losses in order to pay redemption proceeds to its shareholders. In addition, loans are not registered under the federal securities laws like stocks and bonds, so investors in loans have less protection against improper practices than investors in registered securities.

LIBOR transition: Many financial instruments use a floating rate based on the London Interbank Offered Rate, or “LIBOR,” which is the offered rate for short-term Eurodollar deposits between major international banks. As of June 2023, the publication of all settings of LIBOR has been phased out (although certain synthetic USD LIBOR rates will be published through September 2024). The elimination of LIBOR or changes to other reference rates or any other changes or reforms to the determination or supervision of reference rates could have an adverse impact on the market for, or value of, any securities or payments linked to those reference rates, which may adversely affect the fund’s performance and/or net asset value.

Convertible securities: Convertible securities are subject to risks associated with both equity and fixed income securities, including market risk, credit risk, and interest rate risk. In addition, convertible securities may be called back by the issuer prior to maturity at a price that is disadvantageous to the fund.

Active management: The fund’s overall investment program and holdings selected by the fund’s investment adviser may underperform the broad markets, relevant indices, or other funds with similar objectives and investment strategies.

Cybersecurity breaches: The fund could be harmed by intentional cyberattacks and other cybersecurity breaches, including unauthorized access to the fund’s assets, confidential information, or other proprietary information. In addition, a cybersecurity breach could cause one of the fund’s service providers or financial intermediaries to suffer unauthorized data access, data corruption, or loss of operational functionality.

Performance

Because the fund commenced operations in 2023, there is no historical performance information shown here. Performance history will be presented after the fund has been in operation for one full calendar year.

Current performance information will be available through troweprice.com.

Management

Investment Adviser T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc. (T. Rowe Price or Price Associates)


  

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Investment Subadviser T. Rowe Price Investment Management, Inc. (Price Investment Management)

    

Portfolio Manager

Title

Managed
Fund
Since

Joined
Investment
Adviser

David R. Giroux

Cochair of
Investment Advisory Committee

2023

1998

Farris G. Shuggi

Cochair of
Investment Advisory Committee

2023

2008

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

The Investor Class generally requires a $2,500 minimum initial investment ($1,000 minimum initial investment if opening an IRA, a custodial account for a minor, or a small business retirement plan account). Additional purchases generally require a $100 minimum. These investment minimums generally are waived for financial intermediaries and certain employer-sponsored retirement plans submitting orders on behalf of their customers.

The I Class requires a $500,000 minimum initial investment per fund per account registration, although the initial investment minimum generally is waived or reduced for financial intermediaries, eligible retirement plans, certain client accounts for which T. Rowe Price or its affiliates have discretionary investment authority, qualifying directly held accounts, and certain other types of accounts.

For investors holding shares of the fund directly with T. Rowe Price, you may purchase, redeem, or exchange fund shares by mail; by telephone (1-800-225-5132 for IRAs and nonretirement accounts; 1-800-492-7670 for small business retirement plans; and 1-800-638-8790 for institutional investors and financial intermediaries); or, for certain other accounts, by accessing your account online through troweprice.com.

If you hold shares through a financial intermediary or retirement plan, you must purchase, redeem, and exchange shares of the fund through your intermediary or retirement plan. You should check with your intermediary or retirement plan to determine the investment minimums that apply to your account.

Tax Information

The fund declares dividends monthly and typically pays them in the middle of each month. Any capital gains are declared and paid annually, usually in December. Distributions declared by the fund, as well as redemptions or exchanges of fund shares, may be taxable.

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase shares of the fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the fund and its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the


  

SUMMARY

7

fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.


   

MORE ABOUT THE FUND

 

2

  
MANAGEMENT OF THE FUND

Investment Adviser(s)

T. Rowe Price is the fund’s investment adviser and oversees the selection of the fund’s investments and management of the fund’s portfolio pursuant to an investment management agreement between the investment adviser and the fund. T. Rowe Price is the investment adviser for all funds sponsored and managed by T. Rowe Price (T. Rowe Price Funds); is an SEC-registered investment adviser that provides investment management services to individual and institutional investors and sponsors; and serves as adviser and subadviser to registered investment companies, institutional separate accounts, and common trust funds. The address for T. Rowe Price is 100 East Pratt Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202. As of June 30, 2023, T. Rowe Price and its affiliates (Firm) had approximately $1.40 trillion in assets under management and provided investment management services for more than 5.8 million individual and institutional investor accounts.

T. Rowe Price entered into a subadvisory agreement with Price Investment Management under which Price Investment Management is authorized to trade securities and make discretionary investment and voting decisions with respect to all or a portion of the fund’s portfolio. Price Investment Management is registered as an investment adviser with the SEC that provides investment management services to individual and institutional investors and sponsors; and serves as adviser and subadviser to registered investment companies, institutional separate accounts, and common trust funds. Price Investment Management is a subsidiary of T. Rowe Price and its address is 100 East Pratt Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202.

Portfolio Management

T. Rowe Price has established an Investment Advisory Committee with respect to the fund. The committee cochairs are ultimately responsible for the day-to-day management of the fund’s portfolio and work with the committee in developing and executing the fund’s investment program. The members of the committee are as follows: David R. Giroux and Farris G. Shuggi, cochairs, Paul Cho, Gregg Gola, Kevin Klassen, Steven D. Krichbaum, Chase Lancaster, Amanda Ludwitzke, Jordan M. McKinnie, Justin Eric Olsen, Vivek Rajeswaran, Nikhil Shah, Mike Signore, Latika Signorelli, Brian Solomon, Matthew Stevenson, Chen Tian, Tamara P. Wiggs, and Jon Davis Wood. The following information provides the year that the cochairs first joined the Firm and the cochairs’ specific business experience during the past five years (although the cochairs may have had portfolio management responsibilities for a longer period). Mr. Giroux and Mr. Shuggi have been cochairs of the committee since the fund’s inception. Mr. Giroux joined the Firm in 1998, and his investment experience dates from that time. He has served as a portfolio manager with the Firm throughout the past five years. Mr. Shuggi joined the Firm in 2008, and his investment experience dates from that time. During the past five years, he has served as the Head of Quantitative Equity of Price Investment


  

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Management and, prior to that, as a quantitative equity analyst. The Statement of Additional Information (SAI) provides additional information about the portfolio managers’ compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio manager, and the portfolio managers’ ownership of the fund’s shares.

The Management Fee

The management fee consists of two components—an “individual fund fee,” which reflects the fund’s particular characteristics, and a “group fee.” The group fee, which is designed to reflect the benefits of the shared resources of the Firm, is calculated daily based on the combined net assets of all T. Rowe Price Funds (except the funds-of-funds, TRP Reserve Funds, Multi-Sector Account Portfolios, and any index or private-label mutual funds). The group fee schedule (in the following table) is graduated, declining as the combined assets of the T. Rowe Price Funds rise, so shareholders benefit from the overall growth in mutual fund assets.

Group Fee Schedule

  

  0.334%*

First $50 billion

0.305%

Next $30 billion

0.300%

Next $40 billion

0.295%

Next $40 billion

0.290%

Next $60 billion

0.285%

Next $80 billion

0.280%

Next $100 billion

0.275%

Next $100 billion

0.270%

Next $150 billion

0.265%

Next $195 billion

0.260%

Thereafter

* Represents a blended group fee rate containing various breakpoints.

The fund’s group fee is determined by applying the group fee rate to the fund’s average daily net assets. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, the group fee rate was 0.29%. The fund’s individual fund fee rate, also applied to the fund’s average daily net assets, is 0.16%.

The management fee is charged to the fund and each share class of the fund bears its proportionate share of the management fee. An expense limitation agreement that limits the operating expenses or total expense ratio of a particular share class does not result in a reduced or waived management fee.

A discussion about the factors considered by the fund’s Board of Directors (Board) and its conclusions in approving the fund’s investment management agreement (and any subadvisory agreement, if applicable) appear in the fund’s semiannual shareholder report for the period ended June 30.


  

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MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUND’S INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE(S), STRATEGIES, AND RISKS

Investment Objective(s)

The fund seeks total return through a combination of income and capital appreciation.

The fund’s investment objective is considered non-fundamental, which means it may be changed without shareholder approval.

Principal Investment Strategies

The fund normally invests 50-70% of its net assets in fixed income and other debt instruments, including corporate and government bonds, mortgage- and asset-backed securities, convertible bonds, and bank loans (which represent an interest in amounts owed by a borrower to a syndicate of lenders). The fund normally invests 30-50% of its net assets in common and preferred stocks.

The portion of the fund invested in a type of particular security, such as stocks or bonds, results largely from a case-by-case analysis of each instrument and will vary based on market conditions. When selecting stocks, the adviser generally focuses on finding companies whose stocks are expected to provide an attractive return relative to the company’s associated risk. There are no limits on the market capitalization of the issuers of the stocks in which the fund invests.

The fund follows a similar security selection process with respect to fixed income and other debt instruments. When deciding whether to adjust duration, credit risk exposure, or allocations among the various asset classes, the adviser generally focuses on finding holdings with the best risk-adjusted return potential while emphasizing income generation. For example, the adviser may examine characteristics and relative prospects among government and agency obligations; bank loans; and corporate bonds, including those rated noninvestment grade (BB and lower, or an equivalent rating), commonly known as high yield “junk” bonds. The fund may purchase fixed income instruments of any maturity and there are no overall maturity or duration restrictions for the fixed income portion of the portfolio. In addition, there are no limits on the fund’s investments in debt instruments that are rated noninvestment grade, including distressed and defaulted securities.

The fund’s attempt to cushion the effects of market declines on the share price could reduce the fund’s overall risk (volatility) relative to that of the broad stock market. In addition, the fund’s ability to seek appreciation opportunities outside the stock market may also aid performance when stocks are declining. The fund’s investment in common stocks could allow it to participate in favorable stock market trends.

High yield bond issuers often include small or relatively new companies lacking the history or capital to merit investment-grade status, former blue chip companies downgraded because of financial problems, companies electing to borrow heavily to finance or avoid a takeover or buyout, and firms with heavy debt loads.


  

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11

While high yield corporate bonds are typically issued with a fixed interest rate, bank loans have floating interest rates that reset periodically (typically quarterly or monthly). Bank loans represent amounts borrowed by companies or other entities from banks and other lenders. In many cases, the borrowing companies have significantly more debt than equity and the loans have been issued in connection with recapitalizations, acquisitions, leveraged buyouts, or refinancings. The loans held by the fund may be senior or subordinate obligations of the borrower, and may or may not be secured by collateral. The fund will primarily acquire bank loans as an assignment from another lender who holds a floating rate loan, but the fund has flexibility to also acquire bank loans directly from a lender or through the agent, or as a participation interest in another lender’s floating rate loan or portion thereof.

The addition of high yield bonds and bank loans, provides the opportunity for capital appreciation and higher income and the ability to better adapt to changing market conditions when compared to funds with less flexible investment programs. The fund’s investments in high yield securities may include securities that are unrated but deemed to be below investment grade by T. Rowe Price. In addition, bank loans with floating interest rates and certain other holdings could help to moderate the fund’s price decline when interest rates rise because they may be less sensitive to interest rate movements. As with all funds, the fund’s share price can fall because of weakness in the broad stock or bond markets, a particular industry, or specific holdings.

The Firm integrates environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors into its investment research process when applicable. While ESG matters vary widely, we generally consider ESG to mean: Environmental or “E” matters, such as climate change, resource depletion, waste, pollution, or deforestation; Social or “S” matters, such as companies’ relationships with their employees and suppliers, including labor standards, diversity, and human rights issues; and Governance or “G” matters, such as shareholder rights, bribery and corruption, executive pay, and board composition. We focus on the ESG factors we consider most likely to have a material impact on the performance of the holdings in the fund’s portfolio.

The fund may sell assets for a variety of reasons, including in response to a change in the original investment considerations or to limit losses, adjust the characteristics of the overall portfolio, or redeploy assets into different opportunities.

The fund invests in the following types of securities or assets:

Common and Preferred Stocks

Stocks represent shares of ownership in a company. Generally, preferred stocks have a specified dividend rate and rank after bonds and before common stocks in their claim on income for dividend payments and on assets should the company be liquidated. After other claims are satisfied, common stockholders participate in company profits on a pro-rata basis and profits may be paid out in dividends or reinvested in the company to help it grow. Increases and decreases in earnings are usually reflected in a company’s stock price, so common stocks generally have the greatest appreciation and depreciation potential of all corporate securities. Unlike common stock, preferred stock does not ordinarily carry voting rights. While most


  

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preferred stocks pay a dividend, the fund may decide to purchase preferred stock where the issuer has suspended, or is in danger of suspending, payment of its dividend.

Debt Instruments

The fund may invest in bonds and other debt instruments of any type, including municipal securities, without restrictions on quality or rating. Investments in a company also may be made through a privately negotiated note or loan, including loan participations and assignments. These investments will be made in companies, municipalities, or entities that meet the fund’s investment criteria. Such investments may have a fixed, variable, or floating interest rate. The price of a bond or fixed rate debt instrument usually fluctuates with changes in interest rates, generally rising when interest rates fall and falling when interest rates rise. Investments involving below investment-grade issuers or borrowers can be more volatile and have greater risk of default than investment-grade bonds. Certain of these investments may be illiquid and holding a loan could expose the fund to the risks of being a direct lender.

Bank Loans

The fund may make investments in bank loans through the purchase or execution of a privately negotiated loan or note representing the equivalent of a loan, as well as through loan assignments and participations. Large loans to corporations or governments, including governments of less developed countries, may be shared or syndicated among several lenders, usually banks. The fund could participate in such syndicates or could buy part of a loan, becoming a direct lender. These loans may often be obligations of companies or governments in financial distress or in default. These investments involve special types of risk, including those of being a lender, reduced liquidity, increased credit risk, and volatility.

Bank loans may be acquired directly through an agent acting on behalf of the lenders participating in the loan, as an assignment from another lender who holds a direct interest in the loan, or as a participation interest in another lender’s portion of the loan. An assignment typically results in the purchaser succeeding to all rights and obligations under the loan agreement between the assigning lender and the borrower. However, assignments may be arranged through private negotiations, and the rights and obligations acquired by the purchaser of an assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning lender.

A participation interest is a fractional interest in a loan, issued by a lender or other financial institution. To the extent the fund invests in loans through participation interests, it will be more difficult for it to enforce its rights against the borrower because it will have established a direct contractual relationship with the seller of the participation interest but not with the borrower. When the fund invests in a loan by participation, it must rely on another party not only for the enforcement of its rights against the borrower, but also for the receipt and processing of payments due under the loan. Investing in a participation interest limits the fund’s ability to file a claim directly as a creditor in the event of the borrower’s bankruptcy.


  

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Principal Risks

The principal risks associated with the fund’s principal investment strategies, which may be even greater in bad or uncertain market conditions, include the following:

Fixed income markets: The market price of investments owned by the fund may go up or down, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably. The fund’s investments may decline in value due to factors affecting the overall fixed income markets or particular industries or sectors. The value of a holding may decline due to developments related to a particular issuer, but also due to general fixed income market conditions, including real or perceived adverse economic developments, such as changes in interest rates, credit quality, inflation, or currency rates, or generally adverse investor sentiment. The value of a holding may also decline due to factors that negatively affect a particular industry or sector, such as labor shortages, increased production costs, or competitive conditions. The fund may experience heavy redemptions that could cause it to liquidate its assets at inopportune times or at a loss or depressed value.

Stock investing: The fund’s share price can fall because of weakness in the overall stock markets, a particular industry, or specific holdings. Stock markets as a whole can be volatile and decline for many reasons, such as adverse local, regional, or global political, regulatory, or economic developments; changes in investor psychology; or heavy selling at the same time by major institutional investors in the market. The prospects for an industry or company may deteriorate because of a variety of factors, including disappointing earnings or changes in the competitive environment. In addition, the adviser’s assessment of companies whose stocks are held by the fund may prove incorrect, resulting in losses or poor performance, even in rising markets. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of the issuer’s bonds and preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock.

Market conditions: The value of investments held by the fund may decline, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably, due to factors affecting certain issuers, particular industries or sectors, or the overall markets. Rapid or unexpected changes in market conditions could cause the fund to liquidate its holdings at inopportune times or at a loss or depressed value. The value of a particular holding may decrease due to developments related to that issuer, but also due to general market conditions, including real or perceived economic developments, such as changes in interest rates, credit quality, inflation, or currency rates, or generally adverse investor sentiment. The value of a holding may also decline due to factors that negatively affect a particular industry or sector, such as labor shortages, increased production costs, or competitive conditions. In addition, local, regional, or global events such as war, military conflict, acts of terrorism, political and social unrest, regulatory changes, recessions, shifts in monetary or trade policies, natural or environmental disasters, and the spread of infectious diseases or other public health issues could have a significant negative impact on securities markets and the fund’s investments. Any of these events may lead to unexpected suspensions or closures of securities exchanges; travel restrictions or quarantines; business disruptions and closures; inability to obtain raw materials, supplies, and component parts; reduced or disrupted operations for the fund’s service providers or issuers in which the fund invests; and an


  

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extended adverse impact on global market conditions. Government intervention (including sanctions) in markets may impact interest rates, market volatility, and security pricing. The occurrence of any of these events could adversely affect the economies (including through changes in business activity and increased unemployment) and financial markets of specific countries or worldwide.

Credit quality: An issuer of a debt instrument held by the fund could default (fail to make scheduled interest or principal payments), potentially reducing the fund’s income and share price. Credit risk is increased when portfolio holdings are downgraded or the perceived financial condition of an issuer deteriorates. Holdings with an investment-grade rating (AAA through BBB, or an equivalent rating) should have a relatively low risk of encountering financial problems and a relatively high probability of future payments. However, holdings rated BBB (or an equivalent rating) are more susceptible to adverse economic conditions than other investment-grade holdings and may have speculative characteristics. Holdings rated below investment grade should be regarded as speculative because their issuers may be more susceptible to financial setbacks and recession than more creditworthy issuers (commonly referred to as “junk”).

Junk investing: Junk investing subjects the fund to heightened credit risk. Issuers of junk bonds and loans are not as strong financially as those with higher credit ratings, so the issuers and lenders are more vulnerable to financial setbacks and recession than more creditworthy issuers, which may impair their ability to make interest and principal payments. As a result, below investment-grade investments carry greater risks of default and erratic price swings due to real or perceived changes in the credit quality of the issuer or lender.

Because the credit quality of the issuer is lower, such investments are more sensitive to developments affecting the issuer’s or lender’s underlying fundamentals, such as changes in financial condition or a particular country’s general economy. In addition, the entire below investment-grade bond and loan markets can experience sudden and sharp price swings due to a variety of factors, including changes in economic forecasts, stock market activity, large sustained sales by institutional investors, a high-profile default, or a change in the market’s psychology. This type of volatility is usually associated more with stocks than bonds, but investors in lower-quality bonds and loans should also anticipate it. Since funds can be a major source of demand in certain junk bond and loan markets, substantial cash flows into and out of these funds can affect prices. If, for example, a significant number of funds were to sell bonds or loans to meet shareholder redemptions, bond and loan prices and funds’ share prices could fall more than underlying fundamentals might justify.

Any investments in distressed or defaulted instruments subject the fund to even greater credit risk than investments in other below investment-grade investments. Investments in obligations of restructured, distressed, and bankrupt issuers, including debt obligations that are already in default, generally trade significantly below par and may lack liquidity. Defaulted securities might be repaid only after lengthy bankruptcy proceedings, during which the issuer might not make any interest or other payments, and such proceedings may result in only partial recovery of principal or no recovery at all. Recovery could involve an exchange of the defaulted


  

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obligation for other debt instruments or equity securities of the issuer or its affiliates, each of which may in turn lack liquidity or be speculative and be valued by the fund at significantly less than its original purchase price. In addition, investments in distressed issuers may subject the fund to liability as a lender.

Interest rates: The prices of bonds and other fixed income securities typically increase as interest rates fall, and prices typically decrease as interest rates rise (bond prices and interest rates usually move in opposite directions). Such decreases in prices are due to the bonds and notes in the fund’s portfolio becoming less attractive to other investors when securities with higher yields become available. The prices and yields of inflation-linked bonds are directly impacted by the rate of inflation as well as changes in interest rates. Generally, funds with longer weighted average maturities (i.e., an average of the maturities of the underlying debt instruments, “weighted” by the percentage of the fund’s assets it represents) and durations (i.e., the measure of the price sensitivity of a fund to changes in interest rates) carry greater interest rate risk. As a result, in a rising interest rate environment, the net asset value of a fund with a longer weighted average maturity or duration typically decreases at a faster rate than the net asset value of a fund with a shorter weighted average maturity or duration. In addition, recent and potential future changes in monetary policy made by central banks and/or governments are likely to affect the interest rates or yields of the securities in which the fund invests. The discontinuation and replacement of a benchmark rate such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) (an indicative measure of the average interest rate at which major global banks could borrow from one another) may have a significant impact on the financial markets and may adversely impact the fund’s performance. Given the current elevated inflation environment, risks associated with rising interest rates are currently heightened. As a result, rapid changes in interest rates may increase the fund’s overall exposure to interest rate risk.

Bank loans: Bank loans often have contractual restrictions on resale. These restrictions can delay or impede the fund’s ability to sell loans and may adversely affect the price that can be obtained. Loans and unlisted securities are typically less liquid than securities traded on national exchanges. The secondary market for loans may be subject to irregular trading activity and extended settlement periods, and the liquidity of bank loans can vary significantly over time. For example, if the credit quality of a bank loan unexpectedly declines significantly, secondary market trading in that floating rate loan can also decline. During periods of infrequent trading, valuing a bank loan can be more difficult and buying or selling a loan at an acceptable price may not be possible or may be delayed.

The terms of the bank loans held by the fund may require that the borrowing company maintain collateral to support payment of its obligations. However, the value of the collateral securing a bank loan can decline or be insufficient to meet the obligations of the company. In addition, collateral securing a loan may be found invalid, may be used to pay other outstanding obligations of the borrower, or may be difficult to liquidate. The fund’s access to the collateral may be limited by bankruptcy, other insolvency laws, or by the type of loan the fund has purchased. For example, if the fund purchases a participation interest instead of an assignment,


  

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it would not have direct access to collateral of the borrower. As a result, a bank loan may not be fully collateralized and can decline significantly in value.

LIBOR transition: Many financial instruments use a floating rate based on the London Interbank Offered Rate, or “LIBOR,” which is the offered rate for short-term Eurodollar deposits between major international banks. As of June 2023, the publication of all settings of LIBOR has been phased out (although certain synthetic USD LIBOR rates will be published through September 2024). There remains uncertainty regarding the future utilization of LIBOR and the nature of any replacement rate. As such, the potential impact of a transition away from LIBOR on the fund or the financial instruments in which the fund invests cannot yet be determined. The elimination of LIBOR or changes to other reference rates or any other changes or reforms to the determination or supervision of reference rates could have an adverse impact on the market for, or value of, any securities or payments linked to those reference rates, which may adversely affect the fund’s performance and/or net asset value. Furthermore, the risks associated with the discontinuation of LIBOR and transition may be exacerbated if the work necessary to effect an orderly transition to an alternative reference rate is not completed in a timely manner.

Convertible securities: Investments in convertible securities subject the fund to risks associated with both equity and fixed income securities, depending on the price of the underlying security and the conversion price. A convertible security may be called back by the issuer prior to maturity, which could require conversion at a price that is disadvantageous to the fund. In addition, convertible securities are typically issued by smaller-capitalized companies whose stock prices are more volatile than companies that have access to more conventional means of raising capital.

Active management: The investment adviser’s judgments about the attractiveness, value, or potential appreciation of the fund’s investments may prove to be incorrect. The fund could underperform other funds with a similar benchmark or similar investment program if the fund’s investment selections or overall strategies fail to produce the intended results. Regulatory, tax, or other developments may affect the investment strategies available to a portfolio manager, which could adversely affect the ability to implement the fund’s overall investment program and achieve the fund’s investment objective(s).

Cybersecurity breaches: The fund may be subject to operational and information security risks resulting from breaches in cybersecurity. Cybersecurity breaches may involve deliberate attacks and unauthorized access to the digital information systems (for example, through “hacking” or malicious software coding) used by the fund, its investment adviser and subadviser(s) (as applicable), or its service providers but may also result from outside attacks such as denial-of-service attacks, which are efforts to make network services unavailable to intended users. These breaches may, among other things, result in financial losses to the fund and its shareholders, cause the fund to lose proprietary information, disrupt business operations, or result in the unauthorized release of confidential information. Further, cybersecurity breaches involving the fund’s service providers, financial intermediaries, trading


  

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counterparties, or issuers in which the fund invests could subject the fund to many of the same risks associated with direct breaches.

Additional Investment Management Practices

The SAI contains more detailed information about the fund and its investments, operations, and expenses. The fund’s investments may be subject to further restrictions and risks described in the SAI.

Temporary Defensive Position

The fund may assume a temporary defensive position to respond to adverse market, economic, political, or other conditions, such as to provide flexibility in meeting redemptions, pay expenses, or manage cash flows. The temporary defensive position may be inconsistent with the fund’s principal investment objective(s) and/or strategies, which may impact the fund’s returns or its ability to achieve its investment objective(s). For temporary defensive purposes, the fund may invest without limit in cash or other liquid instruments.

Reserve Position

A certain portion of the fund’s assets may be held in reserves. The fund’s reserve positions will typically consist of: (1) shares of a T. Rowe Price internal money market fund or short-term bond fund (which do not charge any management fees and are not available for public purchase); (2) short-term, high-quality U.S. and non-U.S. dollar-denominated money market securities, including repurchase agreements; and (3) U.S. dollar or non-U.S. dollar currencies. If the fund has significant holdings in reserves, it could compromise its ability to achieve its objective(s). Non-U.S. dollar reserves are subject to currency risk.

Borrowing Money and Transferring Assets

The fund may borrow from banks, other persons, and other T. Rowe Price Funds for temporary or emergency purposes, to facilitate redemption requests, or for other purposes consistent with the fund’s policies as set forth in this prospectus and the SAI. Such borrowings may be collateralized with the fund’s assets, subject to certain restrictions.

Borrowings may not exceed 33⅓% of the fund’s total assets. This limitation includes any borrowings for temporary or emergency purposes, applies at the time of the transaction, and continues to the extent required by the Investment Company Act of 1940.

Meeting Redemption Requests

We expect that the fund will hold cash or cash equivalents to meet redemption requests. The fund may also use the proceeds from the sale of portfolio securities to meet redemption requests if consistent with the management of the fund. These redemption methods will be used regularly and may also be used in deteriorating or stressed market conditions. The fund reserves the right to pay redemption proceeds with securities from the fund’s portfolio rather than in cash (redemptions in-kind), as described under “Large Redemptions.” Redemptions in-kind are typically used to meet redemption requests that represent a large percentage of the fund’s net assets in order to minimize the effect of large redemptions on the fund and its remaining shareholders. In general, any redemptions in-kind will represent a pro-rata distribution of the fund’s securities, subject to certain limited exceptions. Redemptions in-kind


  

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may be used regularly in circumstances as described above (generally if the shareholder is able to accept securities in-kind) and may also be used in stressed market conditions.

The fund, along with other T. Rowe Price Funds, is a party to an interfund lending exemptive order received from the SEC that permits the T. Rowe Price Funds to borrow money from and/or lend money to other T. Rowe Price Funds to help the funds meet short-term redemptions and liquidity needs.

During periods of deteriorating or stressed market conditions, when an increased portion of the fund’s portfolio may be composed of holdings with reduced liquidity or lengthy settlement periods, or during extraordinary or emergency circumstances, the fund may be more likely to pay redemption proceeds with cash obtained through interfund lending or short-term borrowing arrangements (if available) or by redeeming a large redemption request in-kind.

Lending of Portfolio Securities

The fund may lend its portfolio securities to broker-dealers, other institutions, or other persons to earn additional income. Risks include the potential insolvency of the broker-dealer or other borrower that could result in delays in recovering securities and capital losses. Additionally, losses could result from the reinvestment of collateral received on loaned securities in investments that decline in value, default, or do not perform as well as expected. Cash collateral from securities lending is invested in a T. Rowe Price short-term bond or money market fund.

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

Turnover is an indication of frequency of trading. Each time the fund purchases or sells a security, it incurs a cost. This cost is reflected in the fund’s net asset value but not in its operating expenses. The higher the turnover rate, the higher the transaction costs and the greater the impact on the fund’s total return. Higher turnover can also increase the possibility of taxable capital gain distributions. A portfolio turnover rate is not shown since the fund had not commenced operations during its most recent fiscal year.

DISCLOSURE OF FUND PORTFOLIO INFORMATION

Most T. Rowe Price Funds disclose their portfolio holdings periodically on troweprice.com. A description of the policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of portfolio holdings and other portfolio information for the T. Rowe Price Funds is available in the SAI.


   

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The following policies and procedures generally apply to Investor Class, I Class, Advisor Class, R Class, and Z Class accounts in the T. Rowe Price Funds. The front cover and Section 1 of this prospectus indicate which share classes are available for the fund.

INVESTING WITH T. ROWE PRICE

This section of the prospectus explains the basics of investing with T. Rowe Price and describes some of the different share classes that may be available. Certain share classes can be held directly with T. Rowe Price, while other share classes must typically be held through a financial intermediary, such as broker-dealers, banks, insurance companies, retirement plan recordkeepers, and investment advisers.

AVAILABLE SHARE CLASSES

Each class of a fund’s shares represents an interest in the same fund with the same investment program and investment policies. However, each class is designed for a different type of investor and has a different cost structure primarily due to shareholder services or distribution arrangements that may apply only to that class. For example, certain classes may make payments to financial intermediaries for various administrative services they provide (commonly referred to as administrative fee payments (AFP)) and/or make payments to certain financial intermediaries for distribution of the fund’s shares (commonly referred to as 12b-1 fee payments). Determining the most appropriate share class depends on many factors, including how much you plan to invest, whether you are investing directly in the fund or through a financial intermediary, and whether you are investing on behalf of a person or an organization.

This section generally describes the differences between Investor Class, I Class, Advisor Class, R Class, and Z Class shares. This section does not describe the policies that apply to accounts in T. Rowe Price Institutional Funds and certain other types of funds. Policies for these other funds are described in their respective prospectuses, and all available share classes for the T. Rowe Price Funds are described more fully in the funds’ SAI. While many T. Rowe Price Funds are offered in more than one share class, not all funds offer all of the share classes described in this section.

Investor Class

A T. Rowe Price Fund that does not include the term “institutional” or indicate a specific share class as part of its name is considered to be the Investor Class of that fund. The Investor Class is available to individual investors, institutions, and a wide variety of other types of investors. The Investor Class may be purchased directly from T. Rowe Price or through a retirement plan or


  

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financial intermediary. The Investor Class does not impose sales charges and does not make any 12b-1 fee payments to financial intermediaries but may make administrative fee payments at an annual rate of up to 0.15% of the class’ average daily net assets. In addition, you may also incur brokerage commissions and other charges when buying or selling Investor Class shares through a financial intermediary. For investors holding the Investor Class through the T. Rowe Price® ActivePlus Portfolios program, the terms and conditions of the program will be applicable.

I Class

The I Class may be purchased directly from T. Rowe Price or through a financial intermediary. The I Class does not impose sales charges and does not make any administrative fee payments or 12b-1 fee payments to financial intermediaries. However, you may incur brokerage commissions and other charges when buying or selling I Class shares through a financial intermediary.

The I Class requires a $500,000 minimum initial investment per fund per account registration, although the minimum generally is waived or reduced for financial intermediaries, eligible retirement plans, certain client accounts for which T. Rowe Price or its affiliate has discretionary investment authority, and certain other types of accounts.

Certain qualifying accounts are eligible to invest in the I Class at a lower investment minimum through programs available to investors holding their accounts directly with T. Rowe Price, including, but not limited to, programs for which T. Rowe Price or its affiliate has discretionary authority. For investors eligible for the I Class through such programs, the terms and conditions, including applicable minimums, of the respective program will apply. Certain accounts, including most T. Rowe Price Brokerage sweep accounts and small business retirement plans with more than one participant that are held directly with T. Rowe Price, are not eligible to invest in the I Class, regardless of account balance.

Advisor Class

The Advisor Class is designed to be sold through various financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, banks, insurance companies, retirement plan recordkeepers, and advisers. The Advisor Class must be purchased through an eligible financial intermediary (except for certain retirement plans held directly with T. Rowe Price). The Advisor Class does not impose sales charges but may make 12b-1 fee payments at an annual rate of up to 0.25% of the class’ average daily net assets and may also separately make administrative fee payments at an annual rate of up to 0.15% of the class’ average daily net assets. You may also incur other fees or charges when buying or selling Advisor Class shares through a financial intermediary.

The Advisor Class requires an agreement between the financial intermediary and T. Rowe Price to be executed prior to investment. Purchases of Advisor Class shares for which the required agreement with T. Rowe Price has not been executed or that are not made through an eligible financial intermediary are subject to rejection or cancellation without prior notice to the financial intermediary or investor, and accounts that are no longer eligible for the Advisor Class (including any accounts that are no longer serviced by a financial intermediary or for


  

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which the financial intermediary does not accept or assess 12b-1 fee payments) may be converted to the Investor Class following notice to the financial intermediary or investor.

R Class

The R Class is designed to be sold through financial intermediaries for employer-sponsored defined contribution retirement plans and certain other retirement accounts. The R Class must be purchased through an eligible financial intermediary (except for certain retirement plans held directly with T. Rowe Price). The R Class does not impose sales charges but may make 12b-1 fee payments at an annual rate of up to 0.50% of the class’ average daily net assets and may also separately make administrative fee payments at an annual rate of up to 0.15% of the class’ average daily net assets. You may also incur other fees or charges when buying or selling R Class shares through a financial intermediary.

The R Class requires an agreement between the financial intermediary and T. Rowe Price to be executed prior to investment. Purchases of R Class shares for which the required agreement with T. Rowe Price has not been executed or that are not made through an eligible financial intermediary are subject to rejection or cancellation without prior notice to the financial intermediary or investor, and accounts that are no longer eligible for the R Class (including any accounts that are no longer serviced by a financial intermediary or for which the financial intermediary does not accept or assess 12b-1 fee payments) may be converted to the Investor Class or Advisor Class following notice to the financial intermediary or investor.

Z Class

The Z Class is only available to funds managed by T. Rowe Price and other advisory clients of T. Rowe Price or its affiliates that are subject to a contractual fee for investment management services. There is no minimum initial investment and no minimum for additional purchases. The Z Class does not impose sales charges and does not make any administrative fee payments or 12b-1 fee payments to financial intermediaries.

DISTRIBUTION AND SHAREHOLDER SERVICING FEES

Administrative Fee Payments (Investor Class, Advisor Class, and R Class)

Certain financial intermediaries perform recordkeeping and administrative services for their clients that would otherwise be performed by the funds’ transfer agent. Investor Class, Advisor Class, and R Class shares may make administrative fee payments to retirement plan recordkeepers, broker-dealers, and other financial intermediaries (at an annual rate of up to 0.15% of the class’ average daily net assets) for transfer agency, recordkeeping, and other administrative services that they provide on behalf of the funds. These administrative services may include maintaining account records for each customer; transmitting purchase and redemption orders; delivering shareholder confirmations, statements, and tax forms; and providing support to respond to customers’ questions regarding their accounts. Except for funds that have an all-inclusive management fee, these separate administrative fee payments


  

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are reflected in the “Other expenses” line that appears in the table titled “Fees and Expenses of the Fund” in Section 1 of this prospectus.

12b-1 Fee Payments (Advisor Class and R Class)

Mutual funds are permitted to adopt a 12b-1 plan to pay certain expenses associated with the distribution of the fund’s shares out of the fund’s assets. Each fund offering Advisor Class and/or R Class shares has adopted a 12b-1 plan under which those classes may make payments (for the Advisor Class, at an annual rate of up to 0.25% of the class’ average daily net assets and, for the R Class, at an annual rate of up to 0.50% of the class’ average daily net assets) to various financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, banks, insurance companies, retirement plan recordkeepers, and investment advisers, for distribution and/or shareholder servicing of the Advisor Class and R Class shares. The 12b-1 plans provide for the class to pay such fees to the fund’s distributor and for the distributor to then pay such fees to the financial intermediaries that provide services for the class and/or make the class available to investors.

For the Advisor Class, distribution payments may include payments to financial intermediaries for making the Advisor Class shares available to their customers (for example, providing the fund with “shelf space” or inclusion on a “preferred list” or “supermarket” platform). For the R Class, distribution payments may include payments to financial intermediaries for making the R Class shares available as investment options to retirement plans and retirement plan participants, assisting plan sponsors in conducting searches for investment options, and providing ongoing monitoring of investment options.

Shareholder servicing payments under the plans may include payments to financial intermediaries for providing shareholder support services to existing shareholders of the Advisor Class and R Class. These payments may be more or less than the costs incurred by the financial intermediaries. Because the fees are paid from the Advisor Class or R Class net assets on an ongoing basis, they will increase the cost of your investment over time. In addition, payments of 12b-1 fees may influence your financial adviser’s recommendation of the fund or of any particular share class of the fund. Payments of 12b-1 fees are reflected in the “Distribution and service (12b-1) fees” line that appears in the table titled “Fees and Expenses of the Fund” in Section 1 of this prospectus.

Additional Compensation to Financial Intermediaries

In addition to the administrative fee payments made by the Investor Class, Advisor Class, and R Class and the 12b-1 payments made by the Advisor Class and R Class, T. Rowe Price or the fund’s distributor will, at their own expense, provide compensation to certain financial intermediaries that have sold shares of or provide shareholder or other services to the T. Rowe Price Funds, commonly referred to as revenue sharing. These payments may be in the form of asset-based, transaction-based, or flat payments. These payments are used to compensate third parties for distribution and shareholder servicing activities, including subaccounting, sub-transfer agency, or other services. Some of these payments may include expense reimbursements and meeting and marketing support payments (out of T. Rowe Price’s or the fund’s distributor’s own resources and not as an expense of the funds) to financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, banks, insurance companies, retirement plan


  

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recordkeepers, and investment advisers, in connection with the sale, distribution, marketing, and/or servicing of the T. Rowe Price Funds. The SAI provides more information about these payment arrangements.

The receipt of, or the prospect of receiving, these payments and expense reimbursements from T. Rowe Price or the fund’s distributor may influence financial intermediaries, plan sponsors, and other third parties to offer or recommend T. Rowe Price Funds over other investment options for which an intermediary does not receive additional compensation (or receives lower levels of additional compensation). In addition, financial intermediaries that receive these payments and/or expense reimbursements may elevate the prominence of the T. Rowe Price Funds by, for example, placing the T. Rowe Price Funds on a list of preferred or recommended funds and/or providing preferential or enhanced opportunities to promote the T. Rowe Price Funds in various ways. Since these additional payments are not paid by a fund directly, these arrangements do not increase fund expenses and will not change the price that an investor pays for shares of the T. Rowe Price Funds or the amount that is invested in a T. Rowe Price Fund on behalf of an investor. You may ask your financial intermediary for more information about any payments they receive from T. Rowe Price or the fund’s distributor.

Comparison of Distribution and Shareholder Servicing Fees

The following table summarizes the distribution and service (12b-1) fee and administrative fee arrangements applicable to each class based on its average daily net assets.

   

Class

12b-1 Fee Payments

Administrative Fee Payments

Investor Class

None

Up to 0.15% per year

I Class

None

None

Advisor Class

Up to 0.25% per year

Up to 0.15% per year

R Class

Up to 0.50% per year

Up to 0.15% per year

Z Class

None

None

ACCOUNT SERVICE FEE

Investor Class

In an effort to help offset the disproportionately high costs incurred by the funds in connection with servicing lower-balance accounts that are held directly with the T. Rowe Price Funds’ transfer agent, an annual $20 account service fee (paid to T. Rowe Price Services, Inc., or one of its affiliates) is charged to certain Investor Class accounts with a balance below $10,000. The determination of whether a fund account is subject to the account service fee is based on account balances and services selected for accounts as of the last business day of August of each calendar year. The fee may be charged to an account with a balance below $10,000 for any reason, including market fluctuation and recent redemptions. The fee, which is automatically deducted from an account by redeeming fund shares, is typically charged to accounts in early September each calendar year. Such redemption may result in a taxable gain or loss to you.


  

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The account service fee generally does not apply to fund accounts that are held through a financial intermediary, participant accounts in employer-sponsored retirement plans for which T. Rowe Price Retirement Plan Services provides recordkeeping services, accounts held through the T. Rowe Price® ActivePlus Portfolios program, or Retirement Advisory Service, or money market funds that are used as a T. Rowe Price Brokerage sweep account. The account service fee is automatically waived for accounts that satisfy any of the following conditions as of the last business day in August:

· Any accounts for which the shareholder has elected to receive electronic delivery of all of the following: account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses, and shareholder reports (paper copies of fund documents are available, free of charge, upon request, to any shareholder regardless of whether the shareholder has elected electronic delivery);

· Any accounts of a shareholder with at least $50,000 in total assets with T. Rowe Price (for this purpose, total assets include investments through T. Rowe Price Brokerage and investments in T. Rowe Price Funds, except for those held through a retirement plan for which T. Rowe Price Retirement Plan Services provides recordkeeping services); or

· Certain accounts enrolled in the T. Rowe Price Summit Program (visit troweprice.com or call 1-800-332-6161 for more information).

T. Rowe Price reserves the right to authorize additional waivers for other types of accounts or to modify the conditions for assessment of the account service fee. Fund shares held in a T. Rowe Price IRA, Education Savings Account, or small business retirement plan account (including certain 403(b) plan accounts) are subject to the account service fee and may be subject to additional administrative fees when distributing all fund shares from such accounts.

POLICIES FOR OPENING AN ACCOUNT

Investor Class and I Class shares may be purchased directly from T. Rowe Price or through various financial intermediaries. Advisor Class and R Class shares must be purchased through a financial intermediary (except for certain retirement plans held directly with T. Rowe Price). If you are opening an account through an employer-sponsored retirement plan or other financial intermediary, you should contact the retirement plan or financial intermediary for information regarding its policies on opening an account, including the policies relating to purchasing, exchanging, and redeeming shares, and the applicable initial and subsequent investment minimums.

Tax Identification Number

Investors must provide T. Rowe Price with a valid Social Security number or taxpayer identification number on a signed new account form or Form W-9, and financial intermediaries must provide T. Rowe Price with their certified taxpayer identification number. Otherwise, federal law requires the funds to withhold a percentage of dividends, capital gain distributions, and redemptions and may subject you or the financial intermediary to an


  

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Internal Revenue Service fine. If this information is not received within 60 days of the account being established, the account may be redeemed at the fund’s then-current net asset value.

Important Information Required to Open a New Account

Pursuant to federal law, all financial institutions must obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or entity that opens an account. This information is needed not only for the account owner and any other person who opens the account, but also for any person who has authority to act on behalf of the account.

When you open an account, you will be asked for the name, U.S. street address (post office boxes are not acceptable), date of birth, and Social Security number or taxpayer identification number for each account owner and person(s) opening an account on behalf of others, such as custodians, agents, trustees, or other authorized signers. When opening an entity account, you will be asked to identify and provide personal information for: (i) any individual who, either directly or indirectly, owns 25% or more of the equity interest of the entity and (ii) a single individual who controls, manages, or directs the entity. Corporate and other institutional accounts require documents showing the existence of the entity (such as articles of incorporation or partnership agreements) to open an account. Certain other fiduciary accounts (such as trusts or power of attorney arrangements) require documentation, which may include an original or certified copy of the trust agreement or power of attorney, to open an account.

T. Rowe Price will use this information to verify the identity of the person(s)/entity opening the account. An account cannot be opened until all of this information is received. If the identity of the account holder cannot be verified, T. Rowe Price is authorized to take any action permitted by law, including, but not limited to, restricting additional purchases, freezing the account, or closing the account and redeeming the shares in the account at the net asset value next calculated after the redemption is processed.

Institutional investors and financial intermediaries should call Client Account Management at 1-800-638-8790 for more information on these requirements, as well as to be assigned an account number and receive instructions for opening an account. Other investors should call Investor Services at 1-800-638-5660 for more information about these requirements.

The funds are generally available only to investors residing in the United States. In addition, nongovernment money market funds that operate as “retail money market funds” pursuant to Rule 2a-7 under the Investment Company Act of 1940 are required to limit their beneficial owners to natural persons. An investor in a retail money market fund is required to demonstrate eligibility (for example, by providing a valid Social Security number) before an account can be opened.


  

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PRICING OF SHARES AND TRANSACTIONS

How and When Shares are Priced

The trade date for your transaction request depends on the day and time that T. Rowe Price receives your request and will normally be executed using the next share price calculated after your order is received in correct form by T. Rowe Price or its agent (or by your financial intermediary if it has the authority to accept transaction orders on behalf of the fund). The share price, also called the net asset value, for each share class of a fund is calculated as of the close of trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), which is normally 4 p.m. ET, on each day that the NYSE is open for business. Net asset values are not calculated for the funds on days when the NYSE is scheduled to be closed for trading (for example, weekends and certain U.S. national holidays). If the NYSE is unexpectedly closed due to weather or other extenuating circumstances on a day it would typically be open for business, or if the NYSE has an unscheduled early closing on a day it has opened for business, the funds reserve the right to treat such day as a business day and accept purchase and redemption orders and calculate their share price as of the normally scheduled close of regular trading on the NYSE for that day.

To calculate the net asset value, the fund’s assets are valued and totaled; liabilities are subtracted; and each class’ proportionate share of the balance, called net assets, is divided by the number of shares outstanding of that class. Market values are used to price portfolio holdings for which market quotations are readily available. Market values generally reflect the prices at which securities actually trade or represent prices that have been adjusted based on evaluations and information provided by the fund’s pricing services. Investments in other mutual funds are valued at the closing net asset value per share of the mutual fund on the day of valuation. Investments for which market quotations are not readily available or deemed unreliable are valued at fair value as determined in good faith by T. Rowe Price by taking into account various, adopted factors and methodologies for determining the fair value. This value may differ from the value the fund receives upon sale of the securities.

Amortized cost is used to price securities held by money market funds and certain short-term debt securities held by other funds. The retail and government money market funds, which seek to maintain a stable net asset value of $1.00, use the amortized cost method of valuation to calculate their net asset value. Amortized cost allows the money market funds to value a holding at the fund’s acquisition cost with adjustments for any premiums or discounts and then round the net asset value per share to the nearest whole cent. The amortized cost method of valuation enables the money market funds to maintain a $1.00 net asset value, but it may also result in periods during which the stated value of a security held by the funds differs from the market-based price the funds would receive if they sold that holding. The current market-based net asset value per share for each business day in the preceding six months is available for the retail and government money market funds through troweprice.com/money-market/en/money-market-fund-information.html. These market-based net asset values are for informational purposes only and are not used to price transactions.


  

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T. Rowe Price uses various pricing services to provide closing market prices, as well as information used to adjust those prices and to value most fixed income securities. T. Rowe Price cannot predict how often it will use closing prices or how often it will adjust those prices. T. Rowe Price routinely evaluates its fair value processes.

Non-U.S. equity securities are valued on the basis of their most recent closing market prices at 4 p.m. ET, except under the following circumstances. Most foreign markets close before 4 p.m. ET. For example, the most recent closing prices for securities traded in certain Asian markets may be as much as 15 hours old at 4 p.m. ET. If T. Rowe Price determines that developments between the close of a foreign market and the close of the NYSE will affect the value of some or all of the fund’s securities, T. Rowe Price will adjust the previous closing prices to reflect what it believes to be the fair value of the securities as of 4 p.m. ET. In deciding whether to make these adjustments, T. Rowe Price reviews a variety of factors, including developments in foreign markets, the performance of U.S. securities markets, and the performance of instruments trading in U.S. markets that represent foreign securities and baskets of foreign securities.

T. Rowe Price may also fair value certain securities or a group of securities in other situations—for example, when a particular foreign market is closed but the fund is open. For a fund that has investments in securities that are primarily listed on foreign exchanges that trade on weekends or other days when the fund does not price its shares, the fund’s net asset value may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or redeem the fund’s shares. If an event occurs that affects the value of a security after the close of the market, such as a default of a commercial paper issuer or a significant move in short-term interest rates, T. Rowe Price may make a price adjustment depending on the nature and significance of the event. T. Rowe Price also evaluates a variety of factors when assigning fair values to private placements and other restricted securities. Other mutual funds may adjust the prices of their securities by different amounts or assign different fair values than the fair value that the fund assigns to the same security.

The various ways you can purchase, sell, and exchange shares are explained throughout this section. These procedures differ based on whether you hold your account directly with T. Rowe Price or through an employer-sponsored retirement plan or financial intermediary.

INVESTING DIRECTLY WITH T. ROWE PRICE

The following policies apply to accounts that are held directly with T. Rowe Price and not through a financial intermediary.

Options for Opening Your Account

If you own other T. Rowe Price Funds, you should consider registering any new account identically to your existing accounts so you can exchange shares among them easily (the name(s) of the account owner(s) and the account type must be identical).


  

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For joint accounts or other types of accounts owned or controlled by more than one party, either owner/party has complete authority to act on behalf of all and give instructions concerning the account without notice to the other party. T. Rowe Price may, in its sole discretion, require written authorization from all owners/parties to act on the account for certain transactions (for example, to transfer ownership). There are multiple ways to establish a new account directly with T. Rowe Price.

Online In general, you can open a new Investor Class or I Class account online. Go to troweprice.com/newaccount to choose the type of account you wish to open.

You can exchange shares online from an existing account in one fund to open a new account in another fund. The new account will have the same registration as the account from which you are exchanging, and any services (other than systematic purchase and systematic distribution arrangements) that you have preauthorized will carry over from the existing account to the new account.

To open an account online for the first time or with a different account registration, you must be a U.S. citizen residing in the U.S. or a resident alien and not subject to Internal Revenue Service backup withholding. Additionally, you must provide consent to receive certain documents electronically. You will have the option of providing your bank account information, which will enable you to make electronic funds transfers to and from your bank account. To set up this banking service online, additional steps will be taken to verify your identity.

By Mail If you are sending a check, please make your check payable to T. Rowe Price Funds (otherwise it may be returned) and send the check, together with the applicable new account form, to the appropriate address. (Please refer to the appropriate address under “Contacting T. Rowe Price” later in this section to avoid a delay in opening your new account.) T. Rowe Price does not accept third-party checks for initial purchases; however, third-party checks are typically accepted for additional purchases to an existing account. In addition, T. Rowe Price does not accept purchases by cash, traveler’s checks, money orders, or credit card checks. For exchanges from an identically registered account, be sure to specify the fund(s) and account number(s) that you are exchanging out of and the fund(s) you wish to exchange into.

By Telephone Direct investors can call Shareholder Services at 1-800-225-5132 (institutional investors should call 1-800-638-8790) to exchange from an existing fund account to open a new identically registered account in another fund. You may also be eligible to open a new account by telephone and provide your bank account information in order to make an initial purchase. To set up the account and banking service by telephone, additional steps will be taken to verify your identity and the authenticity of your bank account. Although the account may be opened and the purchase made, services may not be established and an Internal Revenue Service penalty withholding may occur until we receive the necessary signed form to certify your Social Security number or taxpayer identification number.


  

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How Your Trade Date Is Determined

If you invest directly with T. Rowe Price and your request to purchase, sell, or exchange shares is received by T. Rowe Price or its agent in correct form by the close of the NYSE (normally 4 p.m. ET), your transaction will be priced at that business day’s net asset value. If your request is received by T. Rowe Price or its agent in correct form after the close of the NYSE, your transaction will be priced at the next business day’s net asset value. Systematic transactions that are scheduled to occur on a date the NYSE is closed will normally be processed the next business day (except for certain retirement plan payroll deduction orders generated by T. Rowe Price where the orders are processed the day before the day the NYSE is closed).

Note: There may be times when you are unable to contact us by telephone or access your account online due to extreme market activity, the unavailability of the T. Rowe Price website, or other circumstances. Should this occur, your order must still be placed and received in correct form by T. Rowe Price prior to the time the NYSE closes to be priced at that business day’s net asset value. The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time until which orders are accepted may be changed in case of an emergency or if the NYSE closes at a time other than 4 p.m. ET. The funds reserve the right to not treat an unscheduled intraday disruption or closure in NYSE trading as a closure of the NYSE and still accept transactions and calculate their net asset value as of 4 p.m. ET.

Transaction Confirmations

T. Rowe Price sends immediate confirmations for most of your fund transactions. However, certain transactions, such as systematic purchases and systematic redemptions, dividend reinvestments, checkwriting redemptions from money market funds, and transactions in money market funds used as a brokerage sweep account, do not receive an immediate transaction confirmation but are reported on your account statement. Please review transaction confirmations and account statements as soon as you receive them, and promptly report any discrepancies to Shareholder Services.

Telephone and Online Account Transactions

You may access your accounts and conduct most transactions involving Investor Class or I Class accounts using the telephone or the T. Rowe Price website at troweprice.com. Telephone conversations are recorded.

Preventing Unauthorized Transactions

The T. Rowe Price Funds and their agents use reasonably designed procedures to verify that telephone, electronic, and other instructions are genuine. These procedures include, among other things, recording telephone calls, requiring personalized security codes or other information online and certain identifying information for telephone calls, requiring Medallion signature guarantees for certain transactions and account changes, and promptly sending confirmations of transactions and address changes. For transactions conducted online, we recommend the use of a secure internet browser.

T. Rowe Price Account Protection Program Shareholders who invest in the T. Rowe Price Funds directly are eligible for the Account Protection Program. The Account Protection


  

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Program restores eligible losses due to unauthorized or fraudulent activity, provided that you follow all security best practices when you access and maintain your account(s). T. Rowe Price reserves the right to modify or withdraw the Account Protection Program at any time. The Account Protection Program security best practices and additional information may be accessed online at troweprice.com/personal-investing/help/policies-and-security/account-protection-program.html.

If our verification procedures are followed and the losses are not eligible to be restored under the Account Protection Program, the funds and their agents are not liable for any losses that may occur from acting on unauthorized instructions.

If you suspect any unauthorized account activity, notice errors or discrepancies in your T. Rowe Price account, or are not receiving your T. Rowe Price account statements, please contact T. Rowe Price immediately.

Trusted Contacts Investors who hold shares of a T. Rowe Price Fund directly or through a T. Rowe Price Brokerage account have the option to add one or more trusted contacts to their brokerage and mutual fund accounts. Trusted contacts are intended to be a resource to help protect client assets. Any individuals designated as a trusted contact will be authorized to serve as a primary contact if T. Rowe Price has questions or concerns related to potentially fraudulent account activity or suspected financial exploitation or to confirm your contact information if we are unable to reach you (but are not authorized to act on your account). For more information or to add trusted contacts to your account, visit troweprice.com or call 1-800-225-5132.

If you are age 65 or older, or if you are age 18 or older and we have reason to believe you have a mental or physical impairment that renders you unable to protect your own interest, we may temporarily restrict transactions in your account and place a temporary hold on the disbursement of redemption proceeds from your account in an effort to protect you if we reasonably believe that you have been or will be the victim of actual or attempted financial exploitation. You will receive notice of this temporary delay, and it will be for no more than 15 business days while we conduct an internal review of the suspected financial exploitation (including contacting your trusted contact if one is on file). We may delay an additional 10 business days if T. Rowe Price reasonably believes that actual or attempted financial exploitation has occurred or will occur. At the expiration of the hold time, if we have not confirmed that exploitation has occurred, the proceeds will be released to you. Depending upon the state in which you reside, we may be required to report to the authorities suspected elder or vulnerable adult exploitation.

Purchasing Shares

Shares may be purchased in a variety of ways.

By Check Please make your check payable to the T. Rowe Price Funds. Include a new account form if establishing a new account, and include either a fund investment slip or a letter indicating the fund and your account number if adding to an existing account. Your transaction will receive the share price for the business day that the request is received by


  

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T. Rowe Price or its agent prior to the close of the NYSE (not the day the request is received at the post office box).

By Electronic Transfer Shares may be purchased using the Automated Clearing House network if you have established the service on your account, which allows T. Rowe Price to request payment for your shares directly from your bank account or other financial institution account. You may also arrange for a wire to be sent to T. Rowe Price (wire transfer instructions can be found at troweprice.com/wireinstructions or by calling Shareholder Services). T. Rowe Price must receive the wire by the close of the NYSE to receive that day’s share price. There is no assurance that you will receive the share price for the same day you initiated the wire from your financial institution.

By Exchange You may purchase shares of a fund using the proceeds from the redemption of shares from another fund. The redemption and purchase will receive the same trade date, and if you are establishing a new account, it will have the same registration as the account from which you are exchanging. The purchase must still generally meet the applicable minimum investment requirement.

Systematic Purchases (Automatic Asset Builder) You can instruct T. Rowe Price to automatically transfer money from your account at your bank or other financial institution at least once per month, or you can instruct your employer to send all or a portion of your paycheck to the fund or funds that you designate. Each systematic purchase must be at least $100 per fund account to be eligible for the Automatic Asset Builder service. To automatically transfer money to your account from a bank account or through payroll deductions, complete the appropriate section of the new account form when opening a new account or complete an Account Services Form to add the service to an existing account. Prior to establishing payroll deductions, you must set up the service with T. Rowe Price so that the appropriate instructions can be provided to your employer.

Initial Investment Minimums

Investor Class accounts, other than the Retirement Income 2020 Fund and Summit Funds, require a $2,500 minimum initial investment ($1,000 minimum initial investment for IRAs; certain small business retirement accounts; and custodial accounts for minors, known as Uniform Gifts to Minors Act or Uniform Transfers to Minors Act accounts). The Retirement Income 2020 Fund and Summit Funds require a $25,000 minimum initial investment. I Class accounts require a $500,000 minimum initial investment per fund for each account registration, although the minimum is waived or reduced for certain types of accounts. If you request the I Class of a particular fund when you open a new account, but the investment amount does not meet the applicable minimum, the purchase will be automatically invested in the Investor Class of the same fund (if available).

Additional Investment Minimums

Investor Class accounts, other than Summit Funds, require a $100 minimum for additional purchases, including those made through Automatic Asset Builder. Summit Funds require a $100 minimum for additional purchases through Automatic Asset Builder and a $1,000


  

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minimum for all other additional purchases. I Class accounts require a $100 minimum for additional purchases through Automatic Asset Builder but do not require a minimum amount for other additional purchases.

Exchanging and Redeeming Shares

Exchanges You can move money from one account to an existing, identically registered account or open a new identically registered account. For taxable accounts, an exchange from one fund to another will be reported to the Internal Revenue Service as a sale for tax purposes. (Institutional investors are restricted from exchanging into a fund that operates as a retail money market fund.) You can set up systematic exchanges so that money is automatically moved from one fund account to another on a regular basis.

Receiving Redemption Proceeds Redemption proceeds can be mailed to your account address by check or sent electronically to your bank account by Automated Clearing House transfer or bank wire. You can set up systematic redemptions and have the proceeds automatically sent via check or Automated Clearing House on a regular basis. If your request is received in correct form by T. Rowe Price or its agent on a business day prior to the close of the NYSE, proceeds are usually sent on the next business day. However, if you request a redemption from a money market fund on a business day prior to 12 p.m. (noon) ET and request to have proceeds sent via bank wire, proceeds are normally sent later that same day.

Proceeds sent by Automated Clearing House transfer are usually credited to your account the second business day after the sale, and there are typically no fees associated with such payments. Proceeds sent by bank wire are usually credited to your account the next business day after the sale (except for wire redemptions from money market funds received prior to 12 p.m. (noon) ET). A $5 fee will be charged for an outgoing wire of less than $5,000, in addition to any fees your financial institution may charge for an incoming wire.

If, for some reason, your request to exchange or redeem shares cannot be processed because it is not received in correct form, we will attempt to contact you as soon as administratively possible.

If you request to redeem a specific dollar amount and the market value of your account is less than the amount of your request and we are unable to contact you, your redemption will not be processed and you must submit a new redemption request in correct form.

If you change your address on an account, proceeds may not be mailed to the new address for 15 calendar days after the address change, unless we receive a letter of instruction with a Medallion signature guarantee.

Please note that large purchase and redemption requests initiated through the Automated Clearing House may be rejected, and in such instances, the transaction must be placed by calling Shareholder Services.

Checkwriting You may write an unlimited number of free checks on any money market fund and certain bond funds, with a minimum of $500 per check. Keep in mind, however, that a


  

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check results in a sale of fund shares; a check written on a bond fund will create a taxable event that must be reported by T. Rowe Price to the Internal Revenue Service as a redemption.

Converting to Another Share Class

You may convert from one share class of a fund to another share class of the same fund (which may have a different expense ratio) over the telephone or in writing. Although the conversion has no effect on the dollar value of your investment in the fund, the number of shares owned after the conversion may be greater or less than the number of shares owned before the conversion, depending on the net asset values of the two share classes. A conversion between share classes of the same fund is a nontaxable event. The new account will have the same registration as the account from which you are converting.

Shareholders may contact T. Rowe Price at any time to convert eligible account balances to the I Class. In addition, T. Rowe Price may conduct periodic reviews of account balances. If your account balance in a fund meets or exceeds the applicable minimum amount required for the I Class, T. Rowe Price may, but is not required to, automatically convert your Investor Class shares to I Class shares of the same fund with advance notice, which may be in writing or delivered electronically if you have a valid email address on file with T. Rowe Price. Certain account restrictions will prevent an automatic conversion. If you opt out of any automatic conversions to the I Class, your election will apply to any future periodic reviews and automatic conversions for which you may otherwise be eligible unless you contact T. Rowe Price to change your election. If T. Rowe Price or its affiliates have investment discretion for your account, T. Rowe Price may convert your shares to a different share class without any advance notice to you. Automatic conversions only occur between share classes of the same fund.

Maintaining Your Account Balance

Investor Class Due to the relatively high cost to a fund of maintaining small accounts, we ask that you maintain an account balance of at least $1,000 ($10,000 for Summit Funds). If, for any reason, your balance is below this amount for three months or longer (even if due to market depreciation), we have the right to redeem your account at the then-current net asset value after giving you 60 days’ advance notice to increase your balance.

I Class To keep operating expenses lower, we ask that you maintain an account balance that at least meets the applicable I Class minimum necessary to open an account. If your investment in a fund falls below the applicable I Class minimum (even if due to market depreciation), we have the right to convert your account to a different share class in the same fund (if available) with a higher expense ratio or redeem your account at the then-current net asset value, after giving you 60 days’ advance notice to increase your balance. The redemption of your account by T. Rowe Price could result in a taxable gain or loss. However, if T. Rowe Price or its affiliates have investment discretion for your account, T. Rowe Price may convert your shares to a different share class without advance notice. Shareholders investing in a fund as part of a program that allows for a lower initial investment minimum will be subject to the applicable minimum account balance requirements of the respective program.


  

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The redemption of your account could result in a taxable gain or loss.

Investors holding the fund through the T. Rowe Price® ActivePlus Portfolios program will be subject to the minimum account balance requirements of the program, which may differ from the minimum account balance requirements listed above.

Eligibility Through Certain T. Rowe Price Programs

Direct investors with qualifying accounts may be eligible to invest in the I Class with a lower initial investment minimum and may be eligible to open new accounts in funds that are generally closed to new investors. For certain programs, eligibility is based on the aggregate value of qualifying accounts and certain other accounts held by direct investors in the same household. The terms and conditions of the respective program will apply and are subject to change. Contact T. Rowe Price for more information.

INVESTING THROUGH A FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARY

The following policies apply to accounts that are held through a financial intermediary.

Accounts in Investor Class and I Class shares are not required to be held through a financial intermediary, but accounts in Advisor Class and R Class shares must be held through an eligible financial intermediary (except for certain retirement plans held directly with T. Rowe Price). It is important that you contact your retirement plan or financial intermediary to determine the policies, procedures, and transaction deadlines that apply to your account. The financial intermediary may charge a fee, such as transaction fees or brokerage commissions, for its services.

Opening an Account

The financial intermediary must provide T. Rowe Price with its certified taxpayer identification number. Financial intermediaries should call Client Account Management for an account number and wire transfer instructions. In order to obtain an account number, the financial intermediary must supply the name, taxpayer identification number, and business street address for the account. (Please refer to “Contacting T. Rowe Price” later in this section for the appropriate telephone number and mailing address.) Financial intermediaries must also enter into a separate agreement with the fund or its agent.

How the Trade Date Is Determined

If you invest through a financial intermediary and your transaction request is received by T. Rowe Price or its agent in correct form by the close of the NYSE, your transaction will be priced at that business day’s net asset value. If your request is received by T. Rowe Price or its agent in correct form after the close of the NYSE, your transaction will be priced at the next business day’s net asset value unless the fund has an agreement with your financial intermediary for orders to be priced at the net asset value next computed after receipt by the financial intermediary.


  

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The funds have authorized certain financial intermediaries or their designees to accept orders to buy or sell fund shares on their behalf. When authorized financial intermediaries receive an order in correct form, the order is considered as being placed with the fund and shares will be bought or sold at the net asset value next calculated after the order is received by the authorized financial intermediary. The financial intermediary must transmit the order to T. Rowe Price and pay for such shares in accordance with the agreement with T. Rowe Price or the order may be canceled and the financial intermediary could be held liable for the losses. If the fund does not have such an agreement in place with your financial intermediary, T. Rowe Price or its agent must receive the request in correct form from your financial intermediary by the close of the NYSE in order for your transaction to be priced at that business day’s net asset value.

Note: The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time until which orders are accepted by the fund or a financial intermediary may be changed in case of an emergency or if the NYSE closes at a time other than 4 p.m. ET. The funds reserve the right to not treat an unscheduled intraday disruption or closure in NYSE trading as a closure of the NYSE and still accept transactions and calculate their net asset value as of 4 p.m. ET. Should this occur, your order must still be placed and received in correct form by T. Rowe Price (or by the financial intermediary in accordance with its agreement with T. Rowe Price) prior to the time the NYSE closes to be priced at that business day’s net asset value.

Purchasing Shares

All initial and subsequent investments by financial intermediaries should be made by bank wire or electronic payment. There is no assurance that the share price for the purchase will be the same day the wire was initiated. Purchases by financial intermediaries are typically initiated through the National Securities Clearing Corporation or by calling Client Account Management. The fund may permit financial intermediaries to submit purchase orders for shares through various other methods as well, if approved by Client Account Management.

Investment Minimums

You should check with your financial intermediary to determine what minimum applies to your initial and additional investments.

The Summit Funds require a $25,000 minimum initial investment, and other funds generally require a $2,500 minimum initial investment, although the minimum is generally waived or modified for any retirement plans and financial intermediaries establishing accounts in the Investor Class, Advisor Class, or R Class. I Class accounts require a $500,000 minimum initial investment per fund for each account registration, although the minimum is generally waived for certain types of accounts.

Investments through a financial intermediary generally do not require a minimum amount for additional purchases.

Redeeming Shares

Unless otherwise indicated, redemption proceeds will be sent via bank wire to the financial intermediary’s designated bank. Redemptions by financial intermediaries are typically initiated through the National Securities Clearing Corporation or by calling Client Account


  

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Management. The fund may permit financial intermediaries to submit redemption orders for shares through various other methods as well, if approved by Client Account Management. Normally, the fund transmits proceeds to financial intermediaries for redemption orders received in correct form on either the next business day or second business day after receipt of the order, depending on the arrangement with the financial intermediary. Proceeds for redemption orders received prior to 12 p.m. (noon) ET for a money market fund may be sent via wire the same business day. You must contact your financial intermediary about procedures for receiving your redemption proceeds.

Please note that certain purchase and redemption requests initiated through the National Securities Clearing Corporation may be rejected, and in such instances, the transaction must be placed by contacting Client Account Management.

GENERAL POLICIES RELATING TO TRANSACTIONS

The following policies and requirements apply generally to accounts in the T. Rowe Price Funds, regardless of whether the account is held directly or indirectly with T. Rowe Price.

The funds generally do not accept orders that request a particular day or price for a transaction or any other special conditions. However, when authorized by the fund, certain institutions, financial intermediaries, or retirement plans purchasing fund shares directly with T. Rowe Price may place a purchase order unaccompanied by payment. Payment for these shares must be received by the time designated by the fund (not to exceed the period established for settlement under applicable regulations). If payment is not received by this time, the order may be canceled. The institution, financial intermediary, or retirement plan is responsible for any costs or losses incurred by the fund or T. Rowe Price if payment is delayed or not received.

U.S. Dollars All purchases must be paid for in U.S. dollars; checks must be drawn on U.S. banks. In addition, we request that you give us at least three business days’ notice for any purchase of $1 million or more.

Nonpayment If a check or Automated Clearing House transfer does not clear or payment for an order is not received in a timely manner, your purchase may be canceled. You (or the financial intermediary) may be responsible for any losses or expenses incurred by the fund or its transfer agent, and the fund can redeem shares in your account or another identically registered T. Rowe Price account as reimbursement. The funds and their agents have the right to reject or cancel any purchase, exchange, or redemption due to nonpayment.

Retail Money Market Funds The retail money market funds have implemented policies and procedures designed to limit purchases to accounts beneficially owned by a natural person. Purchases of a retail money market fund may be rejected from an investor who has not demonstrated sufficient eligibility to purchase shares of the fund or from a financial intermediary that has not demonstrated adequate procedures to limit investments to natural


  

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persons. In addition, purchases may be prohibited or subject to certain conditions during periods where a liquidity fee or redemption gate is in effect.

Liquidity Fees and Redemption Gates—Retail Money Market Funds

A money market fund that operates as a retail money market fund pursuant to Rule 2a-7 under the Investment Company Act of 1940 has the ability to impose liquidity fees of up to 2% of the value of the shares redeemed if the fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below certain thresholds, as specified in Rule 2a-7. A retail money market fund also has the ability to impose a redemption gate, which enables the fund to temporarily suspend redemptions for up to 10 business days within a 90-day period if the fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below a certain threshold, as specified in Rule 2a-7. A money market fund’s Board has ultimate discretion to determine whether or not a liquidity fee or redemption gate would be in the best interests of the fund’s shareholders and should be imposed.

A money market fund that operates as a government money market fund pursuant to Rule 2a-7 is not required to impose a liquidity fee or redemption gate upon the sale of your shares. The Boards of the T. Rowe Price money market funds that operate as government money market funds have determined that the funds do not currently intend to impose liquidity fees and redemption gates. However, the Board of a T. Rowe Price government money market fund reserves the right to impose liquidity fees and redemption gates in the future, at which point shareholders would be provided with at least 60 days’ notice prior to such a change.

If a liquidity fee is in place, all exchanges out of the fund will be subject to the liquidity fee, and if a redemption gate is in place, all exchanges out of the fund will be suspended. When a liquidity fee or redemption gate is in place, the fund may elect to not permit the purchase of shares or to subject the purchase of shares to certain conditions, which may include affirmation of the purchaser’s knowledge that a liquidity fee or a redemption gate is in effect.

Omnibus Accounts If your shares are held through a financial intermediary, T. Rowe Price may rely on the financial intermediary to assess any applicable liquidity fees or impose redemption gates on underlying shareholder accounts. In certain situations, T. Rowe Price enters into agreements with financial intermediaries maintaining omnibus accounts that require the financial intermediary to assess liquidity fees or redemption gates. There are no assurances that T. Rowe Price will be successful in ensuring that all financial intermediaries will properly assess the fees.

Please refer to Sections 1 and 2 of the retail money market fund prospectuses for more information regarding liquidity fees and redemption gates.

Large Redemptions

Large redemptions (for example, $250,000 or more) can adversely affect a portfolio manager’s ability to implement a fund’s investment strategy by causing the premature sale of securities that would otherwise be held longer. Therefore, the fund reserves the right (without prior notice) to redeem in kind. In general, any redemptions in kind will represent a pro-rata distribution of a fund’s securities, subject to certain limited exceptions. The redeeming


  

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shareholder will be responsible for disposing of the securities, and the shareholder will be subject to the risks that the value of the securities could decline prior to their sale, the securities could be difficult to sell, and brokerage fees could be incurred. If you continue to hold the securities, you may be subject to any ownership restrictions imposed by the issuers. For example, real estate investment trusts (REITs) often impose ownership restrictions on their equity securities. In addition, we request that you give us at least three business days’ notice for any redemption of $1 million or more.

Delays in Sending Redemption Proceeds

The T. Rowe Price Funds typically expect that redemption requests will be paid out to redeeming shareholders by the business day following the receipt of a redemption request that is in correct form, regardless of the method the fund uses to make such payment (for example, check, wire, or Automated Clearing House transfer). Checks are typically mailed on the business day after the redemption, proceeds sent by wire are typically credited to your financial institution the business day after the redemption, and proceeds sent by Automated Clearing House are typically credited to your financial institution on the second business day after the redemption. However, under certain circumstances, and when deemed to be in a fund’s best interests, proceeds may not be sent for up to seven calendar days after receipt of a valid redemption order (for example, during periods of deteriorating or stressed market conditions or during extraordinary or emergency circumstances).

In addition, if shares are sold that were just purchased and paid for by check or Automated Clearing House transfer, the fund will process your redemption but will generally delay sending the proceeds for up to seven calendar days to allow the check or Automated Clearing House transfer to clear. If, during the clearing period, we receive a check drawn against your newly purchased shares, it will be returned and marked “uncollected.” (The seven-day hold does not apply to purchases paid for by bank wire or automatic purchases through payroll deduction.)

The Board of a retail money market fund may elect to temporarily suspend redemptions from the fund (i.e., a “redemption gate”) for up to 10 business days in a 90-day period if the fund’s weekly liquid assets fall below 30% of its total assets and the fund’s Board determines that imposing a redemption gate is in the fund’s best interests. In addition, under certain limited circumstances, the Board of a money market fund may elect to permanently suspend redemptions in order to facilitate an orderly liquidation of the fund (subject to any additional liquidation requirements).

Involuntary Redemptions and Share Class Conversions

Since nongovernment money market funds that operate as retail money market funds are required to limit their beneficial owners to natural persons, shares held directly by an investor or through a financial intermediary in these funds that are not eligible to invest in a retail money market fund are subject to involuntary redemption at any time without prior notice.

Shares held by any investors or financial intermediaries that are no longer eligible to invest in the I Class or who fail to meet or maintain their account(s) at the investment minimum are


  

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subject to involuntary redemption or conversion to the Investor Class of the same fund (which may have a higher expense ratio). Investments in Advisor Class shares that are no longer held through an eligible financial intermediary may be automatically converted by T. Rowe Price to the Investor Class of the same fund following notice to the financial intermediary or shareholder. Investments in R Class shares that are no longer held on behalf of an employer-sponsored defined contribution retirement plan or other eligible R Class account or that are not held through an eligible financial intermediary may be automatically converted by T. Rowe Price to the Investor Class or Advisor Class of the same fund following notice to the financial intermediary or shareholder.

Excessive and Short-Term Trading Policy

Excessive transactions and short-term trading can be harmful to fund shareholders in various ways, such as disrupting a fund’s portfolio management strategies, increasing a fund’s trading and other costs, and negatively affecting its performance. Short-term traders in funds that invest in foreign securities may seek to take advantage of developments overseas that could lead to an anticipated difference between the price of the funds’ shares and price movements in foreign markets. While there is no assurance that T. Rowe Price can prevent all excessive and short-term trading, the Boards of the T. Rowe Price Funds have adopted the following trading limits that are designed to deter such activity and protect the funds’ shareholders. The funds may revise their trading limits and procedures at any time as the Boards deem necessary or appropriate to better detect short-term trading that may adversely affect the funds, to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, or to impose additional or alternative restrictions.

Subject to certain exceptions, each T. Rowe Price Fund restricts a shareholder’s purchases (including through exchanges) into a fund account for a period of 30 calendar days after the shareholder has redeemed or exchanged out of that same fund account (30-Day Purchase Block). The calendar day after the date of redemption is considered Day 1 for purposes of computing the period before another purchase may be made.

General Exceptions As of the date of this prospectus, the following types of transactions generally are not subject to the funds’ Excessive and Short-Term Trading Policy:

· Shares purchased or redeemed in money market funds and ultra short-term bond funds;

· Shares purchased or redeemed through a systematic purchase or withdrawal plan;

· Checkwriting redemptions from bond funds and money market funds;

· Shares purchased through the reinvestment of dividends or capital gain distributions;

· Shares redeemed automatically by a fund to pay fund fees or shareholder account fees;

· Transfers and changes of account registration within the same fund;

· Shares purchased by asset transfer or direct rollover;

· Shares purchased or redeemed through IRA conversions and recharacterizations;

· Shares redeemed to return an excess contribution from a retirement account;

· Transactions in Section 529 college savings plans;

· Certain transactions in defined benefit and nonqualified plans, subject to prior approval by T. Rowe Price;

· Shares converted from one share class to another share class in the same fund;


  

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· Shares of T. Rowe Price Funds that are purchased by another T. Rowe Price Fund, including shares purchased by T. Rowe Price fund-of-funds products, and shares purchased by discretionary accounts managed by T. Rowe Price or one of its affiliates (please note that shareholders of the investing T. Rowe Price Fund are still subject to the policy);

· Transactions initiated by the trustee or adviser to a donor-advised charitable gift fund as approved by T. Rowe Price; and

· Transactions having a value of $5,000 or less (retirement plans, including those for which T. Rowe Price serves as recordkeeper, and other financial intermediaries may apply the Excessive and Short-Term Trading Policy to transactions of any amount).

Transactions in certain rebalancing, asset allocation, wrap, and other advisory programs, as well as non-T. Rowe Price fund-of-funds products, may also be exempt from the 30-Day Purchase Block, subject to prior written approval by T. Rowe Price.

In addition to restricting transactions in accordance with the 30-Day Purchase Block, T. Rowe Price may, in its discretion, reject (or instruct a financial intermediary to reject) any purchase or exchange into a fund from a person (which includes individuals and entities) whose trading activity could disrupt the management of the fund or dilute the value of the fund’s shares, including trading by persons acting collectively (for example, following the advice of a newsletter, blogger, or social media platform). Such persons may be barred, without prior notice, from further purchases of T. Rowe Price Funds for a period longer than 30 calendar days or permanently.

Financial Intermediary and Retirement Plan Accounts If you invest in T. Rowe Price Funds through a financial intermediary, including a retirement plan, you should review the financial intermediary’s or retirement plan’s materials carefully or consult with the financial intermediary or plan sponsor directly to determine the trading policy that will apply to your trades in the T. Rowe Price Funds as well as any other rules or conditions on transactions that may apply. If T. Rowe Price is unable to identify a transaction placed through a financial intermediary as exempt from the excessive trading policy, the 30-Day Purchase Block may apply.

Financial intermediaries, including retirement plans, may maintain their underlying accounts directly with the fund, although they often establish an omnibus account (one account with the fund that represents multiple underlying shareholder accounts) on behalf of their customers. When financial intermediaries establish omnibus accounts in the T. Rowe Price Funds, T. Rowe Price is not able to monitor the trading activity of the underlying shareholders. However, T. Rowe Price monitors aggregate trading activity at the financial intermediary (omnibus account) level in an attempt to identify activity that indicates potential excessive or short-term trading. If it detects such trading activity, T. Rowe Price may contact the financial intermediary to request personal identifying information and transaction histories for some or all underlying shareholders (including plan participants, if applicable) pursuant to a written agreement that T. Rowe Price has entered into with each financial intermediary. Any nonpublic personal information provided to the fund (for example, a shareholder’s taxpayer identification number or transaction records) is subject to the fund’s privacy policy. If T. Rowe


  

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Price believes that excessive or short-term trading has occurred and there is no exception for such trades under the funds’ Excessive and Short-Term Trading Policy as previously described, it will instruct the financial intermediary to impose restrictions to discourage such practices and take appropriate action with respect to the underlying shareholder, including restricting purchases for 30 calendar days or longer. Each financial intermediary has agreed to execute such instructions pursuant to a written agreement. There is no assurance that T. Rowe Price will be able to properly enforce its Excessive and Short-Term Trading Policy for omnibus accounts. Because T. Rowe Price generally relies on financial intermediaries to provide information and impose restrictions for omnibus accounts, its ability to monitor and deter excessive trading will be dependent upon the financial intermediaries’ timely performance of their responsibilities.

For shares that are held in a retirement plan, generally the 30-Day Purchase Block applies only to shares redeemed by a participant-directed exchange to another fund. However, the 30-Day Purchase Block may apply to transactions other than exchanges depending on how shares of the plan are held at T. Rowe Price or the excessive trading policy applied by your plan’s recordkeeper.

T. Rowe Price may allow a financial intermediary, including a retirement plan, to maintain restrictions on trading in the T. Rowe Price Funds that differ from the 30-Day Purchase Block. An alternative excessive trading policy would be acceptable to T. Rowe Price if it believes that the policy would provide sufficient protection to the T. Rowe Price Funds and their shareholders that is consistent with the excessive trading policy adopted by the funds’ Boards.

There is no guarantee that T. Rowe Price will be able to identify or prevent all excessive or short-term trades or trading practices.

Unclaimed Accounts and Uncashed Checks

If your account has no activity for a certain period of time and/or mail sent to you from T. Rowe Price is deemed undeliverable, T. Rowe Price may be required to transfer (i.e., escheat) your account assets, including any assets related to uncashed checks, to the appropriate state under its abandoned property laws. For IRAs escheated to a state under these abandoned property laws, the escheatment will be treated as a taxable distribution to you and federal and any applicable state income tax will be withheld. This may also apply to your Roth IRA (see the T. Rowe Price Traditional and Roth IRA Disclosure Statement and Custodial Agreement and/or the T. Rowe Price SIMPLE IRA Summary & Agreement for more information). To avoid such action, it is important to keep your account address up to date and periodically communicate with T. Rowe Price by contacting us or logging in to your account at least once every two years.

Delivery of Shareholder Documents

If two or more accounts own the same fund, share the same address, and T. Rowe Price reasonably believes that the two accounts are part of the same household or institution, we may economize on fund expenses by mailing only one shareholder report and summary prospectus


  

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or prospectus, as applicable, for the fund. If you need additional copies or do not want your mailings to be “householded,” please call Shareholder Services.

T. Rowe Price can deliver account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses/summary prospectuses, proxy materials, and shareholder reports electronically. If you are a registered user of troweprice.com, you can consent to the electronic delivery of these documents by logging in and changing your mailing preferences. You can revoke your consent at any time through troweprice.com, and we will begin to send paper copies of these documents within a reasonable time after receiving your revocation.

Signature Guarantees

A Medallion signature guarantee is designed to protect you and the T. Rowe Price Funds from fraud by verifying your signature.

A shareholder or financial intermediary may be required to obtain a Medallion signature guarantee in certain situations, such as:

· Requests to wire redemption proceeds when bank account information is not already authorized and on file for an account;

· Remitting redemption proceeds to any person, address, or bank account not on file;

· Establishing certain services after an account is opened; or

· Changing the account registration or broker-dealer of record for an account.

Financial intermediaries should contact T. Rowe Price Client Account Management for specific requirements.

The signature guarantee must be obtained from a financial institution that is a participant in a Medallion signature guarantee program. You can obtain a Medallion signature guarantee from certain banks, savings institutions, broker-dealers, and other guarantors acceptable to T. Rowe Price. When obtaining a Medallion signature guarantee, please discuss with the guarantor the dollar amount of your proposed transaction. It is important that the level of coverage provided by the guarantor’s stamp covers the dollar amount of the transaction or it may be rejected. We cannot accept guarantees from notaries public or organizations that do not provide reimbursement in the case of fraud.

Fund Operations and Shareholder Services

T. Rowe Price and The Bank of New York Mellon, subject to the oversight of T. Rowe Price, each provide certain accounting services to the T. Rowe Price Funds. T. Rowe Price Services, Inc., acts as the transfer agent and dividend disbursing agent and provides shareholder and administrative services to the funds. T. Rowe Price Retirement Plan Services, Inc., provides recordkeeping, sub-transfer agency, and administrative services for certain types of retirement plans investing in the funds. These companies receive compensation from the funds for their services. The funds may also pay financial intermediaries for performing shareholder and administrative services for underlying shareholders in omnibus accounts. In addition, certain funds serve as an underlying fund in which some fund-of-funds products, the T. Rowe Price Spectrum and Retirement Funds, invest. Subject to approval by each applicable fund’s Board,


  

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each underlying fund bears its proportionate share of the direct operating expenses of the T. Rowe Price Spectrum and Retirement Funds. All of the fees previously discussed are included in a fund’s financial statements and, except for funds that have an all-inclusive management fee, are also reflected in the “Other expenses” line that appears in the table titled “Fees and Expenses of the Fund” in Section 1 of this prospectus.

CONTACTING T. ROWE PRICE

If you hold shares of a fund through a financial intermediary, you must contact your financial intermediary to determine the requirements for opening a new account and placing transactions. Otherwise, please contact T. Rowe Price as follows:

  

Web

 

troweprice.com

For the most complete source of T. Rowe Price news
To open an account
For most account transactions

troweprice.com/paperless

To sign up for e-delivery of your account statements, transaction confirmations, prospectuses/summary prospectuses, proxy materials, and shareholder reports

Phone

 

Shareholder Services: 1-800-225-5132

To make a transaction or for fund, account, and service information (for IRAs and nonretirement accounts)

Investor Services:

1-800-638-5660

To open an account (for IRAs and nonretirement accounts)

Client Account Management: 1-800-638-8790

For information and services for large institutional investors and financial intermediaries

Retirement Client Services: 1-800-492-7670

For information and services for small business retirement plans (or consult your plan administrator)

Summit Program:

1-800-332-6161

Complimentary services and resources designed to help investors make informed investment decisions
Tiered client benefits based on asset level

Brokerage:

1-800-225-7720

If you hold your shares through a T. Rowe Price Brokerage account

Tele*Access®:

1-800-638-2587

To access information on fund performance, prices, account balances, and your latest transactions 24 hours a day
Please note that transactions cannot be placed through Tele*Access®

Hearing Impaired

Call the applicable number with a relay operator; inquiries may also be directed to info@troweprice.com


  

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T. Rowe Price Addresses

Please be sure to use the correct address to avoid a delay in opening your account or processing your transaction. These addresses are subject to change at any time, so please check troweprice.com/contactus or call the appropriate telephone number to ensure that you use the correct mailing address.

Investors (IRAs and nonretirement accounts) opening a new account or making additional purchases by check should use the following addresses:

  

via U.S. mail

T. Rowe Price Account Services
P.O. Box 17300
Baltimore, MD 21297-1300

via private carriers/overnight services

T. Rowe Price Account Services
Mail Code 17300
4515 Painters Mill Road
Owings Mills, MD 21117-4903

Investors (IRAs and nonretirement accounts) requesting an exchange or redemption should use the following addresses:

  

via U.S. mail

T. Rowe Price Account Services
P.O. Box 17468
Baltimore, MD 21298-8275

via private carriers/overnight services

T. Rowe Price Account Services
Mail Code 17468
4515 Painters Mill Road
Owings Mills, MD 21117-4903

Investors in a small business retirement plan opening a new account, making a purchase by check, or placing an exchange or redemption should use the following addresses:

  

via U.S. mail

T. Rowe Price Retirement Client Services
P.O. Box 17350
Baltimore, MD 21297-1350

via private carriers/overnight services

T. Rowe Price
Attn.: Retirement Operations
4515 Painters Mill Road
Owings Mills, MD 21117-4903

Institutional investors (including financial intermediaries) opening a new account, making a purchase by check, or placing an exchange or redemption should use the following addresses:

  

via U.S. mail

T. Rowe Price Client Account Management
P.O. Box 17300
Baltimore, MD 21297-1603

via private carriers/overnight services

T. Rowe Price Client Account Management
Mail Code: OM-4232
4515 Painters Mill Road
Owings Mills, MD 21117-4842

Note: Your transaction will receive the share price for the business day that the request is received by T. Rowe Price or its agent prior to the close of the NYSE (normally 4 p.m. ET), which could differ from the day that the request is received at the post office box.


  

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INFORMATION ON DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES

Each fund intends to qualify to be treated each year as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. In order to qualify, a fund must satisfy certain income, diversification, and distribution requirements. A regulated investment company is not subject to U.S. federal income tax at the portfolio level on income and gains from investments that are distributed to shareholders. However, if a fund were to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company and were ineligible to or otherwise did not cure such failure, the result would be fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to the fund’s shareholders.

To the extent possible, all net investment income and realized capital gains are distributed to shareholders. Generally, your share of the distributions is based on the number of shares of the fund outstanding on the applicable dividend record date. Therefore, if the fund has experienced a net redemption during the taxable period, your share of the distribution that is declared less frequently than daily may be relatively higher due to the smaller number of shares outstanding on the record date. See also “Taxes on Fund Distributions” below.

Dividends and Other Distributions

Except for the Retirement Income 2020 Fund, dividend and capital gain distributions are reinvested in additional fund shares in your account unless you select another option. For the Retirement Income 2020 Fund, subject to certain exceptions, regularly scheduled monthly dividends may generally not be reinvested. Reinvesting distributions results in compounding, which allows you to receive dividends and capital gain distributions on an increasing number of shares.

Distributions not reinvested may be paid by check or transmitted to your bank account via Automated Clearing House or may be automatically invested into another fund account. For the Retirement Income 2020 Fund, regularly scheduled monthly dividends are generally not paid by check. If the U.S. Postal Service cannot deliver your check or if your check remains uncashed for six months, the fund reserves the right to reinvest your distribution check in your account at the net asset value on the day of the reinvestment and to reinvest all subsequent distributions in additional shares of the fund. Interest will not accrue on amounts represented by uncashed distributions or redemption checks.


  

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The following table provides details on dividend payments:

  

Dividend Payment Schedule

Fund

Dividends

Money market funds

· Shares purchased via wire that are received by T. Rowe Price by 12 p.m. (noon) ET begin to earn any dividends on that day. Shares purchased via a wire received after 12 p.m. (noon) ET and through other methods normally begin to earn dividends on the business day after payment is received by T. Rowe Price.

· Dividends, if any, are declared daily and paid on the first business day of each month.

Bond funds, including Retirement Balanced, Retirement I Balanced–I Class, and Spectrum Income

· Shares normally begin to earn any dividends on the business day after payment is received by T. Rowe Price.

· Dividends, if any, are declared daily and paid on the first business day of each month.

These stock funds only:

· Balanced

· Dividend Growth

· Equity Income

· Equity Index 500

· Global Real Estate

· Real Estate

· Spectrum Conservative Allocation

· Spectrum Moderate Allocation

· Dividends, if any, are declared and paid quarterly, in March, June, September, and December.

· Must be a shareholder on the dividend record date.

Capital Appreciation and Income, Retirement Income 2020

· Dividends are declared and normally paid in the middle of each month.

All other funds

· Dividends, if any, are declared and paid annually, generally in December.

· Must be a shareholder on the dividend record date.

All funds

· If necessary, a fund may make additional distributions on short notice to minimize any fund-level tax liabilities.

For funds that declare dividends daily, shares earn any dividends through the date of a redemption (for redemptions from money market funds where the request is received prior to 12 p.m. (noon) ET and proceeds are sent via wire, shares only earn dividends through the calendar day prior to the date of redemption). Shares redeemed on a Friday or prior to a holiday will continue to earn dividends until the next business day. Generally, if you redeem all of your shares at any time during the month, you will also receive all dividends earned through the date of redemption in the same check. When you redeem only a portion of your shares, all dividends accrued on those shares will be reinvested, or paid in cash, on the next dividend payment date. The funds do not pay dividends in fractional cents. Any dividend amount earned for a particular day on all shares held that is one-half of one cent or greater (for example, $0.016) will be rounded up to the next whole cent ($0.02), and any amount that is less


  

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than one-half of one cent (for example, $0.014) will be rounded down to the nearest whole cent ($0.01). Please note that if the dividend payable on all shares held is less than one-half of one cent for a particular day, no dividend will be earned for that day.

If you purchase and redeem your shares through a financial intermediary, consult your financial intermediary to determine when your shares begin and stop accruing dividends as the information previously described may vary.

Capital Gain Payments

A capital gain or loss is the difference between the purchase and sale price of a security. If a fund has net capital gains for the year (after subtracting any capital losses), they are usually declared and paid in December to shareholders of record on a specified date that month. If a second distribution is necessary, it is generally paid the following year. A fund may have to make additional capital gain distributions, if necessary, to comply with the applicable tax law. Capital gains are not expected from money market funds since they are managed to maintain a stable share price. However, if a money market fund unexpectedly has net capital gains for the year (after subtracting any capital losses), the capital gain may be declared and paid in December to shareholders of record.

Tax Information

In most cases, you will be provided information for your tax filing needs no later than mid-February.

If you invest in the fund through a tax-deferred account, such as an IRA or employer-sponsored retirement plan, you will not be subject to tax on dividends and distributions from the fund or the sale of fund shares if those amounts remain in the tax-deferred account. You may receive a Form 1099-R or other Internal Revenue Service forms, as applicable, if any portion of the account is distributed to you.

If you invest in the fund through a taxable account, you generally will be subject to tax when:

· You sell fund shares, including an exchange from one fund to another.

· The fund makes dividend or capital gain distributions.

Additional information about the taxation of dividends for certain T. Rowe Price Funds is listed below:

 

Tax-Free and Municipal Funds

· Regular monthly dividends (including those from the state-specific tax-free funds) are expected to be exempt from federal income taxes.

· Exemption is not guaranteed since the fund has the right under certain conditions to invest in nonexempt securities.

· Tax-exempt dividends paid to Social Security recipients may increase the portion of benefits that is subject to tax.

· For state-specific funds, the monthly dividends you receive are generally expected to be exempt from state and local income tax of that particular state. For other funds, a small portion of your income dividend may be exempt from state and local income taxes.


  

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Tax-Free and Municipal Funds

· If a fund invests in certain “private activity” bonds that are not exempt from the alternative minimum tax, shareholders who are subject to the alternative minimum tax must include income generated by those bonds in their alternative minimum tax calculation. The portion of a fund’s income dividend that should be included in your alternative minimum tax calculation, if any, will be reported to you by mid-February on Form 1099-DIV.

For individual shareholders, a portion of ordinary dividends representing “qualified dividend income” received by the fund may be subject to tax at the lower rates applicable to long-term capital gains rather than ordinary income. You may report it as qualified dividend income in computing your taxes, provided you have held the fund shares on which the dividend was paid for more than 60 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the ex-dividend date. Ordinary dividends that do not qualify for this lower rate are generally taxable at the investor’s marginal income tax rate. This includes the portion of ordinary dividends derived from interest, short-term capital gains, income and gains from derivatives, distributions from nonqualified foreign corporations, distributions from real estate investment trusts, and dividends received by the fund from stocks that were on loan. For taxable years ending after December 31, 2017, and before January 1, 2026, you are generally allowed a deduction of up to 20% on your qualified REIT dividends. You may not take this deduction for a dividend on shares of a fund that have been held for less than 46 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date 45 days before the ex-dividend date. Little, if any, of the ordinary dividends paid by the bond funds or money market funds is expected to qualify for treatment as qualified dividend income or qualified REIT dividends.

For corporate shareholders, a portion of ordinary dividends may be eligible for the deduction for dividends received by corporations to the extent the fund’s income consists of dividends paid by U.S. corporations. Little, if any, of the ordinary dividends paid by the international stock funds, bond funds, or money market funds is expected to qualify for this deduction. A fund that earns interest income may, in its discretion, designate all or a portion of ordinary dividends as Section 163(j) interest dividends, which would allow the recipient to treat the designated portion of such dividends as interest income for purposes of determining interest expense deduction limitation under Section 163(j) of the Internal Revenue Code. Section 163(j) interest dividends, if so designated by a fund, will be reported to your financial intermediary or otherwise in accordance with the requirements specified by the Internal Revenue Service. To be eligible to treat a Section 163(j) interest dividend as interest income, you must have held the fund share for more than 180 days during the 361-day period beginning on the date which is 180 days before the date on which the share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend. The holding period requirement does not apply to money market funds or funds that declare interest dividends on a daily basis in an amount equal to at least 90% of the fund’s excess Section 163(j) interest income and distribute such dividends on a monthly basis.

A 3.8% net investment income tax is imposed on net investment income, including interest, dividends, and capital gains of U.S. individuals with income exceeding $200,000 (or $250,000 if married filing jointly) and of estates and trusts.


  

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If you hold your fund through a financial intermediary, the financial intermediary is responsible for providing you with any necessary tax forms. You should contact your financial intermediary for the tax information that will be sent to you and reported to the Internal Revenue Service.

Taxes on Fund Redemptions

When you sell shares in any fund, you may realize a gain or loss. An exchange from one fund to another fund in a taxable account is also a sale for tax purposes. As long as a money market fund maintains a stable share price of $1.00, a redemption or exchange to another fund will not result in a gain or loss for tax purposes. However, an exchange from one fund into a money market fund may result in a gain or loss on the fund from which shares were redeemed.

All or a portion of the loss realized from a sale or exchange of your fund shares may be disallowed under the “wash sale” rule if you purchase substantially identical shares within a 61-day period beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the date on which the shares are sold or exchanged. Shares of the same fund you acquire through dividend reinvestment are shares purchased for the purpose of the wash sale rule and may trigger a disallowance of the loss for shares sold or exchanged within the 61-day period of the dividend reinvestment. Any loss disallowed under the wash sale rule is added to the cost basis of the purchased shares.

T. Rowe Price (or your financial intermediary) will make available to you Form 1099-B, if applicable, no later than mid-February, providing certain information for each sale you made in the fund during the prior year. Unless otherwise indicated on your Form 1099-B, this information will also be reported to the Internal Revenue Service. For mutual fund shares acquired prior to 2012 in most accounts established or opened by exchange in 1984 or later, our Form 1099-B will provide you with the gain or loss on the shares you sold during the year based on the average cost single category method. This information on average cost and gain or loss from sale is not reported to the Internal Revenue Service. For these mutual fund shares acquired prior to 2012, you may calculate the cost basis using other methods acceptable to the Internal Revenue Service, such as First In First Out (FIFO), for example.

For mutual fund shares acquired on or after January 1, 2012, federal income tax regulations require us to report the cost basis information on Form 1099-B using a cost basis method selected by the shareholder in compliance with such regulations or, in the absence of such selected method, our default method if you acquire your shares directly from T. Rowe Price. Our default method is average cost. For any fund shares acquired through a financial intermediary on or after January 1, 2012, you should check with your financial intermediary regarding the applicable cost basis method. You should note that the cost basis information reported to you may not always be the same as what you should report on your tax return because the rules applicable to the determination of cost basis on Form 1099-B may be different from the rules applicable to the determination of cost basis for reporting on your tax return. Therefore, you should save your transaction records to make sure the information reported on your tax return is accurate. T. Rowe Price and financial intermediaries are not required to issue a Form 1099-B to report sales of money market fund shares.


  

T. ROWE PRICE

50

To help you maintain accurate records, T. Rowe Price will make available to you a confirmation promptly following each transaction you make (except for systematic purchases and systematic redemptions) and a year-end statement detailing all of your transactions in each fund account during the year. If you hold your fund through a financial intermediary, the financial intermediary is responsible for providing you with transaction confirmations and statements.

Taxes on Fund Distributions

T. Rowe Price (or your financial intermediary) will make available to you, as applicable, generally no later than mid-February, a Form 1099-DIV, or other Internal Revenue Service forms, as required, indicating the tax status of any income dividends, dividends exempt from federal income taxes, and capital gain distributions made to you. This information will be reported to the Internal Revenue Service. Taxable distributions are generally taxable to you in the year in which they are paid. A dividend declared in October, November, or December and paid in the following January is generally treated as taxable to you as if you received the distribution in December. Dividends from tax-free funds are generally expected to be tax-exempt for federal income tax purposes. Your bond fund and money market fund dividends for each calendar year will include dividends accrued up to the first business day of the next calendar year. Ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions may also be subject to state and local taxes. You will be sent any additional information you need to determine your taxes on fund distributions, such as the portion of your dividends, if any, that may be exempt from state and local income taxes.

Taxable distributions are subject to tax, whether reinvested in additional shares or received in cash.

The tax treatment of a capital gain distribution is determined by how long the fund held the portfolio securities, not how long you held the shares in the fund. Short-term (one year or less) capital gain distributions are taxable at the same rate as ordinary income, and gains on securities held for more than one year are taxed at the lower rates applicable to long-term capital gains. If you realized a loss on the sale or exchange of fund shares that you held for six months or less, your short-term capital loss must be reclassified as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any long-term capital gain distributions received during the period you held the shares. For funds investing in foreign instruments, distributions resulting from the sale of certain foreign currencies, currency contracts, and the foreign currency portion of gains on debt instruments are taxed as ordinary income. Net foreign currency losses may cause monthly or quarterly dividends to be reclassified as returns of capital.

A fund’s distributions that have exceeded the fund’s earnings and profits for the relevant tax year may be treated as a return of capital to its shareholders. A return of capital distribution is generally nontaxable but reduces the shareholder’s cost basis in the fund, and any return of capital in excess of the cost basis will result in a capital gain.

The tax status of certain distributions may be recharacterized on year-end tax forms, such as your Form 1099-DIV. Distributions made by a fund may later be recharacterized for federal


  

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

51

income tax purposes—for example, from taxable ordinary income dividends to returns of capital. A recharacterization of distributions may occur for a number of reasons, including the recharacterization of income received from underlying investments, such as REITs, and distributions that exceed taxable income due to losses from foreign currency transactions or other investment transactions. Certain funds, including international bond funds and funds that invest significantly in REITs, are more likely to recharacterize a portion of their distributions as a result of their investments. The Retirement Income 2020 Fund is also more likely to have some or all of its distributions recharacterized as returns of capital because of the predetermined monthly distribution amount.

If the fund qualifies and elects to pass through nonrefundable foreign income taxes paid to foreign governments during the year, your portion of such taxes will be reported to you as taxable income. However, you may be able to claim an offsetting credit or deduction on your tax return for those amounts. There can be no assurance that a fund will meet the requirements to pass through foreign income taxes paid.

If you are subject to backup withholding, we will have to withhold a 24% backup withholding tax on distributions and, in some cases, redemption payments. You may be subject to backup withholding if we are notified by the Internal Revenue Service to withhold, you have failed one or more tax certification requirements, or our records indicate that your tax identification number is missing or incorrect. Backup withholding is not an additional tax and is generally available to credit against your federal income tax liability with any excess refunded to you by the Internal Revenue Service.

The following table provides additional details on distributions for certain funds:

 

Taxes on Fund Distributions

Tax-Free and Municipal Funds

· Gains realized on the sale of market discount bonds with maturities beyond one year may be treated as ordinary income and cannot be offset by other capital losses.

· Payments received or gains realized on certain derivative transactions may result in taxable ordinary income or capital gains.

· To the extent the fund makes such investments, the likelihood of a taxable distribution will be increased.

Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond, U.S. Limited Duration TIPS Index, and Inflation Protected Bond Funds

· Inflation adjustments on Treasury inflation protected securities that exceed deflation adjustments for the year will be distributed as ordinary income.

· In computing the distribution amount, the funds cannot reduce inflation adjustments by short- or long-term capital losses from the sales of securities.

· Net deflation adjustments for a year may result in all or a portion of dividends paid earlier in the year being treated as a return of capital. 

Fund-of-Funds

· Distributions by the underlying funds and changes in asset allocations may result in taxable distributions of ordinary income or capital gains, which could have a significant tax impact to taxable account holders.


  

T. ROWE PRICE

52

Tax Consequences of Liquidity Fees

It is currently anticipated that shareholders of retail money market funds that impose a liquidity fee may generally treat the liquidity fee as offsetting the shareholder’s amount realized on the redemption (thereby decreasing the shareholder’s gain, or increasing the shareholder’s loss, on the redeemed amount). A fund that imposes a liquidity fee anticipates using 100% of the fee to help repair a market-based net asset value per share that was below $1.00.

Because the retail money market funds use amortized cost to maintain a stable share price of $1.00, in the event that a liquidity fee is imposed, a fund may need to distribute to its remaining shareholders sufficient value to prevent the fund from breaking the buck on the upside (i.e., by rounding up to $1.01 in pricing its shares) if the imposition of a liquidity fee causes the fund’s market-based net asset value to reach $1.0050. To the extent that a fund has sufficient earnings and profits to support the distribution, the additional dividends would be taxable as ordinary income to shareholders and would be eligible for deduction by the fund. Any distribution in excess of the fund’s earnings and profits would be treated as a return of capital, which would reduce your cost basis in the fund shares.

Tax Consequences of Hedging

Entering into certain transactions involving options, futures, swaps, and forward currency exchange contracts may result in the application of the mark-to-market and straddle provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. These provisions could result in a fund being required to distribute gains on such transactions even though it did not close the contracts during the year or receive cash to pay such distributions. The fund may not be able to reduce its distributions for losses on such transactions to the extent of unrealized gains in offsetting positions.

Tax Effect of Buying Shares Before an Income Dividend or Capital Gain Distribution

If you buy shares before or on the record date—the date that establishes you as the person to receive the upcoming distribution—you may receive a portion of the money you invested in the form of a taxable distribution. Therefore, you may wish to find out a fund’s record date before investing. In addition, a fund’s share price may, at any time, reflect undistributed capital gains or income and unrealized appreciation, which may result in future taxable distributions. Such distributions can occur even in a year when the fund has a negative return. The amount of capital gains realized by the fund is dependent upon the price at which securities are sold compared with the cost basis of those securities. When evaluating investment opportunities and deciding to sell a particular holding, a portfolio manager may consider the fund’s cash position relative to the cash needed to meet shareholder redemptions and/or purchase other securities and may identify certain shares with a specific cost basis to be sold in an attempt to minimize capital gain distributions. Additional information is available in the fund’s annual and semiannual shareholder reports.


  

INFORMATION ABOUT ACCOUNTS IN T. ROWE PRICE FUNDS

53

RIGHTS RESERVED BY THE FUNDS

T. Rowe Price Funds and their agents, in their sole discretion, reserve the following rights: (1) to waive or lower investment minimums; (2) to accept initial purchases by telephone; (3) to refuse any purchase or exchange order; (4) to cancel or rescind any purchase or exchange order placed through a financial intermediary no later than the business day after the order is received by the financial intermediary (including, but not limited to, orders deemed to result in excessive trading, market timing, or 5% ownership); (5) to cease offering fund shares at any time to all or certain groups of investors; (6) to freeze any account and suspend account services when notice has been received of a dispute regarding the ownership of the account, or a legal claim against an account, upon initial notification to T. Rowe Price of a shareholder’s death until T. Rowe Price receives required documentation in correct form, or if there is reason to believe a fraudulent transaction may occur; (7) to otherwise modify the conditions of purchase and modify or terminate any services at any time; (8) to waive any wire, small account, maintenance, or fiduciary fees charged to a group of shareholders; (9) to act on instructions reasonably believed to be genuine; (10) to involuntarily redeem an account at the net asset value calculated the day the account is redeemed when permitted by law, including in cases of threatening or abusive conduct, suspected fraudulent or illegal activity, or if the fund or its agent is unable, through its procedures, to verify the identity of the person(s) or entity opening an account; and (11) for money market funds, to suspend redemptions to facilitate an orderly liquidation.


The fund’s Statement of Additional Information, which contains a more detailed description of the fund’s operations, investment restrictions, policies, and practices, has been filed with the SEC. The Statement of Additional Information is incorporated by reference into this prospectus, which means that it is legally part of this prospectus even if you do not request a copy. Further information about the fund’s investments, including a review of market conditions and the manager’s recent investment strategies and their impact on performance during the past fiscal year, is available in the annual and semiannual shareholder reports. These documents and updated performance information are available through troweprice.com. For inquiries about the fund and to obtain free copies of any of these documents, call 1-800-638-5660. If you invest in the fund through a financial intermediary, you should contact your financial intermediary for copies of these documents.

Fund reports and other fund information are available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s internet site at sec.gov. Copies of this information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at publicinfo@sec.gov.

  

 

T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc.
100 East Pratt Street
Baltimore, MD 21202

 
  

1940 Act File No. 811-4519

F1577-040 10/1/23


  

  

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

This is the Statement of Additional Information (SAI) for all of the funds listed below (Price Funds). It is divided into two parts (Part I and Part II). Part I primarily contains information that is particular to each fund, while Part II contains information that generally applies to all of the mutual funds sponsored and managed by T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc. (Price Associates or T. Rowe Price).

The date of this Statement of Additional Information is October 1, 2023.

  

T. ROWE PRICE ALL-CAP OPPORTUNITIES FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price All-Cap Opportunities Fund

PRWAX

T. Rowe Price All-Cap Opportunities Fund—Advisor Class

PAWAX

T. Rowe Price All-Cap Opportunities Fund—I Class

PNAIX

T. ROWE PRICE BALANCED FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Balanced Fund

RPBAX

T. Rowe Price Balanced Fund—I Class

RBAIX

T. ROWE PRICE BLUE CHIP GROWTH FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Blue Chip Growth Fund

TRBCX

T. Rowe Price Blue Chip Growth Fund—Advisor Class

PABGX

T. Rowe Price Blue Chip Growth Fund—I Class

TBCIX

T. Rowe Price Blue Chip Growth Fund—R Class

RRBGX

T. Rowe Price Blue Chip Growth Fund—Z Class

TRZBX

T. ROWE PRICE CAPITAL APPRECIATION FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Capital Appreciation Fund

PRWCX

T. Rowe Price Capital Appreciation Fund—Advisor Class

PACLX

T. Rowe Price Capital Appreciation Fund—I Class

TRAIX

 

T. Rowe Price Capital Appreciation and Income Fund

PRCFX

T. Rowe Price Capital Appreciation and Income Fund—I Class

PRCHX

 

T. ROWE PRICE COMMUNICATIONS & TECHNOLOGY FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Communications & Technology Fund

PRMTX

T. Rowe Price Communications & Technology Fund—I Class

TTMIX

T. ROWE PRICE CORPORATE INCOME FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Corporate Income Fund

PRPIX

T. Rowe Price Corporate Income Fund—I Class

TICCX

T. Rowe Price Corporate Income Fund—Z Class

TRZCX

T. ROWE PRICE CREDIT OPPORTUNITIES FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Credit Opportunities Fund

PRCPX

T. Rowe Price Credit Opportunities Fund—Advisor Class

PAOPX

T. Rowe Price Credit Opportunities Fund—I Class

TCRRX

T. ROWE PRICE DIVERSIFIED MID-CAP GROWTH FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Diversified Mid-Cap Growth Fund

PRDMX

T. Rowe Price Diversified Mid-Cap Growth Fund—I Class

RPTTX

C00-042 10/1/2023


  

T. ROWE PRICE DIVIDEND GROWTH FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Dividend Growth Fund

PRDGX

T. Rowe Price Dividend Growth Fund—Advisor Class

TADGX

T. Rowe Price Dividend Growth Fund—I Class

PDGIX

T. Rowe Price Dividend Growth Fund—Z Class

TRZDX

T. ROWE PRICE EQUITY FUNDS, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Hedged Equity Fund

PHEFX

T. Rowe Price Hedged Equity Fund—I Class

PHEIX

T. Rowe Price Hedged Equity Fund—Z Class

PZHEX

T. Rowe Price Institutional Large-Cap Core Growth Fund

TPLGX

T. Rowe Price Institutional Mid-Cap Equity Growth Fund

PMEGX

T. Rowe Price Institutional Small-Cap Stock Fund

TRSSX

T. Rowe Price Large-Cap Growth Fund

TRGOX

T. Rowe Price Large-Cap Growth Fund—I Class

TRLGX

T. Rowe Price Large-Cap Value Fund

TRLUX

T. Rowe Price Large-Cap Value Fund—I Class

TILCX

T. ROWE PRICE EQUITY INCOME FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Equity Income Fund

PRFDX

T. Rowe Price Equity Income Fund—Advisor Class

PAFDX

T. Rowe Price Equity Income Fund—I Class

REIPX

T. Rowe Price Equity Income Fund—R Class

RRFDX

T. Rowe Price Equity Income Fund—Z Class

TRZQX

T. ROWE PRICE FINANCIAL SERVICES FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Financial Services Fund

PRISX

T. Rowe Price Financial Services Fund—I Class

TFIFX

T. ROWE PRICE FLOATING RATE FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Floating Rate Fund

PRFRX

T. Rowe Price Floating Rate Fund—Advisor Class

PAFRX

T. Rowe Price Floating Rate Fund—I Class

TFAIX

T. Rowe Price Floating Rate Fund—Z Class

TRIZX

T. ROWE PRICE GLOBAL ALLOCATION FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Global Allocation Fund

RPGAX

T. Rowe Price Global Allocation Fund—Advisor Class

PAFGX

T. Rowe Price Global Allocation Fund—I Class

TGAFX

T. ROWE PRICE GLOBAL FUNDS, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Global Value Equity Fund

TRGVX

T. Rowe Price Global Value Equity Fund—I Class

PRIGX

T. Rowe Price Institutional Emerging Markets Bond Fund

TREBX

T. Rowe Price Institutional Emerging Markets Equity Fund

IEMFX

T. Rowe Price Institutional International Disciplined Equity Fund

RPICX

T. ROWE PRICE GLOBAL MULTI-SECTOR BOND FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Global Multi-Sector Bond Fund

PRSNX

T. Rowe Price Global Multi-Sector Bond Fund—Advisor Class

PRSAX

T. Rowe Price Global Multi-Sector Bond Fund—I Class

PGMSX

2


  

T. ROWE PRICE GLOBAL REAL ESTATE FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Global Real Estate Fund

TRGRX

T. Rowe Price Global Real Estate Fund—Advisor Class

PAGEX

T. Rowe Price Global Real Estate Fund—I Class

TIRGX

T. ROWE PRICE GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Global Technology Fund

PRGTX

T. Rowe Price Global Technology Fund—I Class

PGTIX

T. ROWE PRICE GNMA FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price GNMA Fund

PRGMX

T. Rowe Price GNMA Fund—I Class

PRXAX

T. Rowe Price GNMA Fund—Z Class

TRZGX

T. ROWE PRICE GOVERNMENT MONEY FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Government Money Fund

PRRXX

T. Rowe Price Government Money Fund—I Class

TTGXX

T. ROWE PRICE GROWTH STOCK FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Growth Stock Fund

PRGFX

T. Rowe Price Growth Stock Fund—Advisor Class

TRSAX

T. Rowe Price Growth Stock Fund—I Class

PRUFX

T. Rowe Price Growth Stock Fund—R Class

RRGSX

T. Rowe Price Growth Stock Fund—Z Class

TRJZX

T. ROWE PRICE HEALTH SCIENCES FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Health Sciences Fund

PRHSX

T. Rowe Price Health Sciences Fund—I Class

THISX

T. ROWE PRICE HIGH YIELD FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price High Yield Fund

PRHYX

T. Rowe Price High Yield Fund—Advisor Class

PAHIX

T. Rowe Price High Yield Fund—I Class

PRHIX

T. Rowe Price High Yield Fund—Z Class

TRKZX

T. Rowe Price U.S. High Yield Fund

TUHYX

T. Rowe Price U.S. High Yield Fund—Advisor Class

TUHAX

T. Rowe Price U.S. High Yield Fund—I Class

TUHIX

T. ROWE PRICE INDEX TRUST, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Equity Index 500 Fund

PREIX

T. Rowe Price Equity Index 500 Fund—I Class

PRUIX

T. Rowe Price Equity Index 500 Fund—Z Class

TRHZX

T. Rowe Price Extended Equity Market Index Fund

PEXMX

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Index Fund

TRMNX

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Index Fund—I Class

TRMSX

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Index Fund—Z Class

TRSZX

T. Rowe Price Small-Cap Index Fund

TRSYX

T. Rowe Price Small-Cap Index Fund—I Class

TRCSX

T. Rowe Price Small-Cap Index Fund—Z Class

TRZIX

T. Rowe Price Total Equity Market Index Fund

POMIX

3


  

T. Rowe Price U.S. Limited Duration TIPS Index Fund

TLDTX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Limited Duration TIPS Index Fund—I Class

TLDUX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Limited Duration TIPS Index Fund—Z Class

TLDZX

T. ROWE PRICE INFLATION PROTECTED BOND FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Inflation Protected Bond Fund

PRIPX

T. Rowe Price Inflation Protected Bond Fund—I Class

TIIPX

T. Rowe Price Inflation Protected Bond Fund—Z Class

TRZHX

T. ROWE PRICE INSTITUTIONAL INCOME FUNDS, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Institutional Floating Rate Fund

RPIFX

T. Rowe Price Institutional Floating Rate Fund—F Class

PFFRX

T. Rowe Price Institutional Floating Rate Fund—Z Class

TRAZX

T. Rowe Price Institutional High Yield Fund

TRHYX

  

T. Rowe Price Institutional Long Duration Credit Fund

RPLCX

T. ROWE PRICE INTEGRATED EQUITY FUNDS, INC. (formerly T. ROWE PRICE QUANTITATIVE MANAGEMENT FUNDS, INC.)

 

T. Rowe Price Integrated Global Equity Fund (formerly T. Rowe Price QM Global Equity Fund)

TQGEX

  

T. Rowe Price Integrated Global Equity Fund—I Class (formerly T. Rowe Price QM Global Equity Fund—I Class)

TQGIX

T. Rowe Price Integrated U.S. Large-Cap Value Equity Fund (formerly T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Value Equity Fund)

TQMVX

T. Rowe Price Integrated U.S. Large-Cap Value Equity Fund—Advisor Class (formerly T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Value Equity Fund—Advisor Class)

TQVAX

T. Rowe Price Integrated U.S. Large-Cap Value Equity Fund—I Class (formerly T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Value Equity Fund—I Class)

TQVIX

T. Rowe Price Integrated U.S. Small-Cap Growth Equity Fund (formerly T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Small-Cap Growth Equity Fund)

PRDSX

T. Rowe Price Integrated U.S. Small-Cap Growth Equity Fund—Advisor Class (formerly T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Small-Cap Growth Equity Fund—Advisor Class)

TQAAX

T. Rowe Price Integrated U.S. Small-Cap Growth Equity Fund—I Class (formerly T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Small-Cap Growth Equity Fund—I Class)

TQAIX

T. Rowe Price Integrated U.S. Small-Mid Cap Core Equity Fund (formerly T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Small & Mid-Cap Core Equity Fund)

TQSMX

T. Rowe Price Integrated U.S. Small-Mid Cap Core Equity Fund—Advisor Class (formerly T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Small & Mid-Cap Core Equity Fund—Advisor Class)

TQSAX

T. Rowe Price Integrated U.S. Small-Mid Cap Core Equity Fund—I Class (formerly T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Small & Mid-Cap Core Equity Fund—I Class)

TQSIX

T. ROWE PRICE INTERMEDIATE TAX-FREE HIGH YIELD FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Intermediate Tax-Free High Yield Fund

PRIHX

  

T. Rowe Price Intermediate Tax-Free High Yield Fund—I Class

TFHAX

T. ROWE PRICE INTERNATIONAL FUNDS, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Africa & Middle East Fund

TRAMX

T. Rowe Price Africa & Middle East Fund—I Class

PRAMX

T. Rowe Price Africa & Middle East Fund—Z Class

TRZMX

T. Rowe Price Asia Opportunities Fund

TRAOX

T. Rowe Price Asia Opportunities Fund—Advisor Class

PAAOX

T. Rowe Price Asia Opportunities Fund—I Class

TRASX

T. Rowe Price China Evolution Equity Fund

TCELX

T. Rowe Price China Evolution Equity Fund—I Class

TRCLX

T. Rowe Price Dynamic Credit Fund

RPIDX

4


  

T. Rowe Price Dynamic Credit Fund—I Class

RPELX

T. Rowe Price Dynamic Credit Fund—Z Class

TRCDX

T. Rowe Price Dynamic Global Bond Fund

RPIEX

T. Rowe Price Dynamic Global Bond Fund—Advisor Class

PAIEX

T. Rowe Price Dynamic Global Bond Fund—I Class

RPEIX

T. Rowe Price Dynamic Global Bond Fund—Z Class

TRDZX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Europe Fund

TREMX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Europe Fund—I Class

TTEEX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Europe Fund—Z Class

TRZEX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund

PREMX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund—Advisor Class

PAIKX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund—I Class

PRXIX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Bond Fund—Z Class

TREZX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Corporate Bond Fund

TRECX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Corporate Bond Fund—Advisor Class

PACEX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Corporate Bond Fund—I Class

TECIX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Discovery Stock Fund

PRIJX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Discovery Stock Fund—Advisor Class

PAIJX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Discovery Stock Fund—I Class

REVIX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Discovery Stock Fund—Z Class

TRFZX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Local Currency Bond Fund

PRELX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Local Currency Bond Fund—Advisor Class

PAELX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Local Currency Bond Fund—I Class

TEIMX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Local Currency Bond Fund—Z Class

TRZFX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Stock Fund

PRMSX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Stock Fund—I Class

PRZIX

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Stock Fund—Z Class

TRGZX

T. Rowe Price European Stock Fund

PRESX

T. Rowe Price European Stock Fund—I Class

TEUIX

T. Rowe Price European Stock Fund—Z Class

TRZPX

T. Rowe Price Global Consumer Fund

PGLOX

T. Rowe Price Global Growth Stock Fund

RPGEX

T. Rowe Price Global Growth Stock Fund—Advisor Class

PAGLX

T. Rowe Price Global Growth Stock Fund—I Class

RGGIX

T. Rowe Price Global High Income Bond Fund

RPIHX

T. Rowe Price Global High Income Bond Fund—Advisor Class

PAIHX

T. Rowe Price Global High Income Bond Fund—I Class

RPOIX

T. Rowe Price Global Impact Equity Fund

TGPEX

T. Rowe Price Global Impact Equity Fund—I Class

TGBLX

T. Rowe Price Global Industrials Fund

RPGIX

T. Rowe Price Global Industrials Fund—I Class

TRGAX

T. Rowe Price Global Stock Fund

PRGSX

T. Rowe Price Global Stock Fund—Advisor Class

PAGSX

T. Rowe Price Global Stock Fund—I Class

TRGLX

5


  

T. Rowe Price International Bond Fund

RPIBX

T. Rowe Price International Bond Fund—Advisor Class

PAIBX

T. Rowe Price International Bond Fund—I Class

RPISX

T. Rowe Price International Bond Fund—Z Class

TRLZX

T. Rowe Price International Bond Fund (USD Hedged)

TNIBX

T. Rowe Price International Bond Fund (USD Hedged)—Advisor Class

TTABX

T. Rowe Price International Bond Fund (USD Hedged)—I Class

TNBMX

T. Rowe Price International Bond Fund (USD Hedged)—Z Class

TRMZX

T. Rowe Price International Disciplined Equity Fund

PRCNX

T. Rowe Price International Disciplined Equity Fund—Advisor Class

PRNCX

T. Rowe Price International Disciplined Equity Fund—I Class

RICIX

T. Rowe Price International Discovery Fund

PRIDX

T. Rowe Price International Discovery Fund—I Class

TIDDX

T. Rowe Price International Discovery Fund—Z Class

TRZKX

T. Rowe Price International Stock Fund

PRITX

T. Rowe Price International Stock Fund—Advisor Class

PAITX

T. Rowe Price International Stock Fund—I Class

PRIUX

T. Rowe Price International Stock Fund—R Class

RRITX

T. Rowe Price International Stock Fund—Z Class

TRNZX

T. Rowe Price International Value Equity Fund

TRIGX

T. Rowe Price International Value Equity Fund—Advisor Class

PAIGX

T. Rowe Price International Value Equity Fund—I Class

TRTIX

T. Rowe Price International Value Equity Fund—R Class

RRIGX

T. Rowe Price International Value Equity Fund—Z Class

TROZX

T. Rowe Price Japan Fund

PRJPX

T. Rowe Price Japan Fund—I Class

RJAIX

T. Rowe Price Japan Fund—Z Class

TRZJX

T. Rowe Price Latin America Fund

PRLAX

T. Rowe Price Latin America Fund—I Class

RLAIX

T. Rowe Price Latin America Fund—Z Class

TRZYX

T. Rowe Price New Asia Fund

PRASX

T. Rowe Price New Asia Fund—I Class

PNSIX

T. Rowe Price New Asia Fund—Z Class

TRZNX

T. Rowe Price Overseas Stock Fund

TROSX

T. Rowe Price Overseas Stock Fund—Advisor Class

PAEIX

T. Rowe Price Overseas Stock Fund—I Class

TROIX

T. Rowe Price Overseas Stock Fund—Z Class

TRZSX

T. ROWE PRICE INTERNATIONAL INDEX FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price International Equity Index Fund

PIEQX

T. Rowe Price International Equity Index Fund—Z Class

TLIEX

T. ROWE PRICE LIMITED DURATION INFLATION FOCUSED BOND FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund

TRBFX

T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund—I Class

TRLDX

T. Rowe Price Limited Duration Inflation Focused Bond Fund—Z Class

TRPZX

6


  

T. ROWE PRICE MID-CAP GROWTH FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Growth Fund

RPMGX

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Growth Fund—Advisor Class

PAMCX

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Growth Fund—I Class

RPTIX

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Growth Fund—R Class

RRMGX

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Growth Fund—Z Class

TRQZX

T. ROWE PRICE MID-CAP VALUE FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Value Fund

TRMCX

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Value Fund—Advisor Class

TAMVX

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Value Fund—I Class

TRMIX

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Value Fund—R Class

RRMVX

T. Rowe Price Mid-Cap Value Fund—Z Class

TRTZX

T. ROWE PRICE MULTI-SECTOR ACCOUNT PORTFOLIOS, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Emerging Markets Corporate Multi-Sector Account Portfolio

  

T. Rowe Price Floating Rate Multi-Sector Account Portfolio

T. Rowe Price High Yield Multi-Sector Account Portfolio

T. Rowe Price Investment-Grade Corporate Multi-Sector Account Portfolio

T. Rowe Price Mortgage-Backed Securities Multi-Sector Account Portfolio

T. ROWE PRICE MULTI-STRATEGY TOTAL RETURN FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Multi-Strategy Total Return Fund

TMSRX

  

T. Rowe Price Multi-Strategy Total Return Fund—I Class

TMSSX

T. ROWE PRICE NEW ERA FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price New Era Fund

PRNEX

T. Rowe Price New Era Fund—I Class

TRNEX

T. ROWE PRICE NEW HORIZONS FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price New Horizons Fund

PRNHX

T. Rowe Price New Horizons Fund—I Class

PRJIX

T. Rowe Price New Horizons Fund—Z Class

TRUZX

T. ROWE PRICE NEW INCOME FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price New Income Fund

PRCIX

T. Rowe Price New Income Fund—Advisor Class

PANIX

T. Rowe Price New Income Fund—I Class

PRXEX

T. Rowe Price New Income Fund—R Class

RRNIX

T. Rowe Price New Income Fund—Z Class

TRVZX

T. ROWE PRICE QM U.S. BOND INDEX FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Bond Index Fund

PBDIX

T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Bond Index Fund—I Class

TSBLX

T. Rowe Price QM U.S. Bond Index Fund—Z Class

TSBZX

T. ROWE PRICE REAL ASSETS FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund

PRAFX

T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund—I Class

PRIKX

T. Rowe Price Real Assets Fund—Z Class

TRZRX

7


  

T. ROWE PRICE REAL ESTATE FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Real Estate Fund

TRREX

T. Rowe Price Real Estate Fund—Advisor Class

PAREX

T. Rowe Price Real Estate Fund—I Class

TIRRX

T. ROWE PRICE RESERVE INVESTMENT FUNDS, INC. (TRP RESERVE FUNDS)

 

T. Rowe Price Government Reserve Fund

  

T. Rowe Price Transition Fund

TTNFX

T. Rowe Price Treasury Reserve Fund

T. ROWE PRICE RETIREMENT FUNDS, INC. (RETIREMENT FUNDS)

 

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2005 Fund

TRRFX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2005 Fund—Advisor Class

PARGX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2005 Fund—I Class

TRAJX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2005 Fund—R Class

RRTLX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2010 Fund

TRRAX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2010 Fund—Advisor Class

PARAX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2010 Fund—I Class

TRPUX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2010 Fund—R Class

RRTAX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2015 Fund

TRRGX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2015 Fund—Advisor Class

PARHX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2015 Fund—I Class

TRUBX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2015 Fund—R Class

RRTMX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund

TRRBX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund—Advisor Class

PARBX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund—I Class

TRDBX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2020 Fund—R Class

RRTBX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund

TRRHX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund—Advisor Class

PARJX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund—I Class

TREHX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2025 Fund—R Class

RRTNX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund

TRRCX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund—Advisor Class

PARCX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund—I Class

TRFHX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2030 Fund—R Class

RRTCX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund

TRRJX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund—Advisor Class

PARKX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund—I Class

TRFJX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2035 Fund—R Class

RRTPX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2040 Fund

TRRDX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2040 Fund—Advisor Class

PARDX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2040 Fund—I Class

TRHDX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2040 Fund—R Class

RRTDX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2045 Fund

TRRKX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2045 Fund—Advisor Class

PARLX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2045 Fund—I Class

TRIKX

8


  

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2045 Fund—R Class

RRTRX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2050 Fund

TRRMX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2050 Fund—Advisor Class

PARFX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2050 Fund—I Class

TRJLX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2050 Fund—R Class

RRTFX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2055 Fund

TRRNX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2055 Fund—Advisor Class

PAROX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2055 Fund—I Class

TRJMX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2055 Fund—R Class

RRTVX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2060 Fund

TRRLX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2060 Fund—Advisor Class

TRRYX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2060 Fund—I Class

TRLNX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2060 Fund—R Class

TRRZX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2065 Fund

TRSJX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2065 Fund—Advisor Class

PASUX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2065 Fund—I Class

TRMOX

T. Rowe Price Retirement 2065 Fund—R Class

RRSUX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Balanced Fund

TRRIX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Balanced Fund—Advisor Class

PARIX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Balanced Fund—I Class

TRJWX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Balanced Fund—R Class

RRTIX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2005 Fund

TBLPX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2005 Fund—I Class

TBLAX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2010 Fund

TBLQX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2010 Fund—I Class

TBLBX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2015 Fund

TBLSX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2015 Fund—I Class

TBLCX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2020 Fund

TSBAX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2020 Fund—I Class

TBLDX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2025 Fund

TBLVX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2025 Fund—I Class

TBLEX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2030 Fund

TBLWX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2030 Fund—I Class

TBLGX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2035 Fund

TBLYX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2035 Fund—I Class

TBLHX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2040 Fund

TRBLX

 

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2040 Fund—I Class

TBLJX

 

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2045 Fund

TRBQX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2045 Fund—I Class

TBLKX

 

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2050 Fund

TRBSX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2050 Fund—I Class

TBLLX

 

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2055 Fund

TRBOX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2055 Fund—I Class

TBLMX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2060 Fund

TRBNX

9


  

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2060 Fund—I Class

TBLNX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2065 Fund

TRBPX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Blend 2065 Fund—I Class

TBLOX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2005 Fund—I Class

TRPFX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2010 Fund—I Class

TRPAX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2015 Fund—I Class

TRFGX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2020 Fund—I Class

TRBRX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2025 Fund—I Class

TRPHX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2030 Fund—I Class

TRPCX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2035 Fund—I Class

TRPJX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2040 Fund—I Class

TRPDX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2045 Fund—I Class

TRPKX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2050 Fund—I Class

TRPMX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2055 Fund—I Class

TRPNX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2060 Fund—I Class

TRPLX

T. Rowe Price Retirement I 2065 Fund—I Class

TRFKX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Balanced I Fund—I Class

TRPTX

T. Rowe Price Retirement Income 2020 Fund

TRLAX

T. Rowe Price Target 2005 Fund

TRARX

T. Rowe Price Target 2005 Fund—Advisor Class

PANRX

T. Rowe Price Target 2005 Fund—I Class

TFRRX

T. Rowe Price Target 2010 Fund

TRROX

T. Rowe Price Target 2010 Fund—Advisor Class

PAERX

T. Rowe Price Target 2010 Fund—I Class

TORFX

T. Rowe Price Target 2015 Fund

TRRTX

T. Rowe Price Target 2015 Fund—Advisor Class

PAHRX

T. Rowe Price Target 2015 Fund—I Class

TTRTX

T. Rowe Price Target 2020 Fund

TRRUX

T. Rowe Price Target 2020 Fund—Advisor Class

PAIRX

T. Rowe Price Target 2020 Fund—I Class

TTURX

T. Rowe Price Target 2025 Fund

TRRVX

T. Rowe Price Target 2025 Fund—Advisor Class

PAJRX

T. Rowe Price Target 2025 Fund—I Class

TRVVX

T. Rowe Price Target 2030 Fund

TRRWX

T. Rowe Price Target 2030 Fund—Advisor Class

PAKRX

T. Rowe Price Target 2030 Fund—I Class

TWRRX

T. Rowe Price Target 2035 Fund

RPGRX

T. Rowe Price Target 2035 Fund—Advisor Class

PATVX

T. Rowe Price Target 2035 Fund—I Class

TPGPX

T. Rowe Price Target 2040 Fund

TRHRX

T. Rowe Price Target 2040 Fund—Advisor Class

PAHHX

T. Rowe Price Target 2040 Fund—I Class

TRXRX

10


  

T. Rowe Price Target 2045 Fund

RPTFX

T. Rowe Price Target 2045 Fund—Advisor Class

PAFFX

T. Rowe Price Target 2045 Fund—I Class

TRFWX

T. Rowe Price Target 2050 Fund

TRFOX

T. Rowe Price Target 2050 Fund—Advisor Class

PAOFX

T. Rowe Price Target 2050 Fund—I Class

TOORX

T. Rowe Price Target 2055 Fund

TRFFX

T. Rowe Price Target 2055 Fund—Advisor Class

PAFTX

T. Rowe Price Target 2055 Fund—I Class

TRPPX

T. Rowe Price Target 2060 Fund

TRTFX

T. Rowe Price Target 2060 Fund—Advisor Class

TRTGX

T. Rowe Price Target 2060 Fund—I Class

TTOIX

T. Rowe Price Target 2065 Fund

PRSLX

T. Rowe Price Target 2065 Fund—Advisor Class

PAZLX

T. Rowe Price Target 2065 Fund—I Class

RPFDX

T. ROWE PRICE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Science & Technology Fund

PRSCX

T. Rowe Price Science & Technology Fund—Advisor Class

PASTX

T. Rowe Price Science & Technology Fund—I Class

TSNIX

T. ROWE PRICE SHORT-TERM BOND FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Short Duration Income Fund

TSDLX

T. Rowe Price Short Duration Income Fund—I Class

TSIDX

T. Rowe Price Short-Term Bond Fund

PRWBX

T. Rowe Price Short-Term Bond Fund—Advisor Class

PASHX

T. Rowe Price Short-Term Bond Fund—I Class

TBSIX

T. Rowe Price Short-Term Bond Fund—Z Class

TRZOX

T. Rowe Price Ultra Short-Term Bond Fund

TRBUX

T. Rowe Price Ultra Short-Term Bond Fund—I Class

TRSTX

T. Rowe Price Ultra Short-Term Bond Fund—Z Class

TRZWX

T. ROWE PRICE SMALL-CAP STOCK FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Small-Cap Stock Fund

OTCFX

T. Rowe Price Small-Cap Stock Fund—Advisor Class

PASSX

T. Rowe Price Small-Cap Stock Fund—I Class

OTIIX

T. Rowe Price Small-Cap Stock Fund—Z Class

TRZZX

T. ROWE PRICE SMALL-CAP VALUE FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Small-Cap Value Fund

PRSVX

T. Rowe Price Small-Cap Value Fund—Advisor Class

PASVX

T. Rowe Price Small-Cap Value Fund—I Class

PRVIX

T. Rowe Price Small-Cap Value Fund—Z Class

TRZVX

11


  

T. ROWE PRICE SPECTRUM FUND, INC. (SPECTRUM FUNDS)

 

T. Rowe Price Spectrum Diversified Equity Fund

PRSGX

T. Rowe Price Spectrum Diversified Equity Fund—I Class

TSVPX

T. Rowe Price Spectrum Income Fund

RPSIX

T. Rowe Price Spectrum Income Fund—I Class

TSPNX

T. Rowe Price Spectrum International Equity Fund

PSILX

T. Rowe Price Spectrum International Equity Fund—I Class

TSINX

T. ROWE PRICE SPECTRUM FUNDS II, INC. (SPECTRUM FUNDS II)

 

T. Rowe Price Spectrum Conservative Allocation Fund

PRSIX

T. Rowe Price Spectrum Conservative Allocation Fund—I Class

PPIPX

T. Rowe Price Spectrum Moderate Allocation Fund

TRPBX

 

T. Rowe Price Spectrum Moderate Allocation Fund—I Class

TPPAX

 

T. Rowe Price Spectrum Moderate Growth Allocation Fund

TRSGX

T. Rowe Price Spectrum Moderate Growth Allocation Fund—I Class

TGIPX

T. ROWE PRICE STATE TAX-FREE FUNDS, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price California Tax-Free Bond Fund

PRXCX

T. Rowe Price California Tax-Free Bond Fund—I Class

TCFEX

T. Rowe Price Georgia Tax-Free Bond Fund

GTFBX

T. Rowe Price Georgia Tax-Free Bond Fund—I Class

TBGAX

T. Rowe Price Maryland Short-Term Tax-Free Bond Fund

PRMDX

T. Rowe Price Maryland Short-Term Tax-Free Bond Fund—I Class

TRMUX

T. Rowe Price Maryland Tax-Free Bond Fund

MDXBX

T. Rowe Price Maryland Tax-Free Bond Fund—I Class

TFBIX

T. Rowe Price Maryland Tax-Free Money Fund

TMDXX

T. Rowe Price Maryland Tax-Free Money Fund—I Class

TWNXX

T. Rowe Price New Jersey Tax-Free Bond Fund

NJTFX

T. Rowe Price New Jersey Tax-Free Bond Fund—I Class

TRJIX

T. Rowe Price New York Tax-Free Bond Fund

PRNYX

T. Rowe Price New York Tax-Free Bond Fund—I Class

TRYIX

T. Rowe Price Virginia Tax-Free Bond Fund

PRVAX

T. Rowe Price Virginia Tax-Free Bond Fund—I Class

TFBVX

T. ROWE PRICE SUMMIT FUNDS, INC. (SUMMIT INCOME FUNDS)

 

T. Rowe Price Cash Reserves Fund

TSCXX

T. ROWE PRICE SUMMIT MUNICIPAL FUNDS, INC. (SUMMIT MUNICIPAL FUNDS)

 

T. Rowe Price Summit Municipal Income Fund

PRINX

T. Rowe Price Summit Municipal Income Fund—Advisor Class

PAIMX

T. Rowe Price Summit Municipal Income Fund—I Class

PRIMX

T. Rowe Price Summit Municipal Intermediate Fund

PRSMX

T. Rowe Price Summit Municipal Intermediate Fund—Advisor Class

PAIFX

T. Rowe Price Summit Municipal Intermediate Fund—I Class

PRTMX

T. ROWE PRICE TAX-EFFICIENT FUNDS, INC. (TAX-EFFICIENT FUNDS)

 

T. Rowe Price Tax-Efficient Equity Fund

PREFX

T. Rowe Price Tax-Efficient Equity Fund—I Class

TEEFX

12


  

T. ROWE PRICE TAX-EXEMPT MONEY FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Tax-Exempt Money Fund

PTEXX

T. Rowe Price Tax-Exempt Money Fund—I Class

TERXX

T. ROWE PRICE TAX-FREE HIGH YIELD FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Tax-Free High Yield Fund

PRFHX

T. Rowe Price Tax-Free High Yield Fund—Advisor Class

PATFX

T. Rowe Price Tax-Free High Yield Fund—I Class

PTYIX

T. ROWE PRICE TAX-FREE INCOME FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Tax-Free Income Fund

PRTAX

T. Rowe Price Tax-Free Income Fund—Advisor Class

PATAX

T. Rowe Price Tax-Free Income Fund—I Class

TFILX

T. ROWE PRICE TAX-FREE SHORT-INTERMEDIATE FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Tax-Free Short-Intermediate Fund

PRFSX

T. Rowe Price Tax-Free Short-Intermediate Fund—Advisor Class

PATIX

T. Rowe Price Tax-Free Short-Intermediate Fund—I Class

TTSIX

T. ROWE PRICE TOTAL RETURN FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Total Return Fund

PTTFX

T. Rowe Price Total Return Fund—Advisor Class

PTATX

T. Rowe Price Total Return Fund—I Class

PTKIX

T. ROWE PRICE U.S. EQUITY RESEARCH FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price U.S. Equity Research Fund

PRCOX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Equity Research Fund—Advisor Class

PACOX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Equity Research Fund—I Class

PCCOX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Equity Research Fund—R Class

RRCOX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Equity Research Fund—Z Class

PCUZX

T. ROWE PRICE U.S. LARGE-CAP CORE FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price U.S. Large-Cap Core Fund

TRULX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Large-Cap Core Fund—Advisor Class

PAULX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Large-Cap Core Fund—I Class

RCLIX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Large-Cap Core Fund—Z Class

TRZLX

T. ROWE PRICE U.S. TREASURY FUNDS, INC. (U.S. TREASURY FUNDS)

 

T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Intermediate Index Fund

PRTIX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Intermediate Index Fund—I Class

PRKIX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Intermediate Index Fund—Z Class

TRZTX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund

PRULX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund—I Class

PRUUX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Long-Term Index Fund—Z Class

TRZUX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Money Fund

PRTXX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Money Fund—I Class

TRGXX

T. Rowe Price U.S. Treasury Money Fund—Z Class

TRZXX

13


  

T. ROWE PRICE VALUE FUND, INC.

 

T. Rowe Price Value Fund

TRVLX

T. Rowe Price Value Fund—Advisor Class

PAVLX

T. Rowe Price Value Fund—I Class

TRPIX

T. Rowe Price Value Fund—Z Class

TRZAX

Mailing Address:

T. Rowe Price Investment Services, Inc.
100 East Pratt Street
Baltimore, Maryland 21202
1-800-638-5660

This SAI is not a prospectus. It should be read in conjunction with the appropriate current fund prospectus, which may be obtained from T. Rowe Price Investment Services, Inc. (Investment Services), the Corporation’s principal underwriter (Distributor). If you would like a prospectus or an annual or semiannual shareholder report for a fund, please visit troweprice.com or call 1-800-638-5660 and it will be sent to you at no charge. Please read this material carefully.

The prospectus for each fund is dated as shown above, as such prospectus may be revised from time to time. Capitalized terms used herein that are not defined have the same meaning as in the prospectuses, unless otherwise noted.

The financial statements and Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm of the funds included in each fund’s annual report, when available, are incorporated into this SAI by reference.

14


PART I – TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

  

Management of the Funds

20

Principal Holders of Securities

112

Investment Adviser and Investment Management Agreements

260

Third-Party Arrangements

304

Distributor for the Funds

312

Page

  

Portfolio Transactions

316

Portfolio Turnover

332

Securities Lending Activities

337

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

342

Part II

343

References to the following are as indicated:

Fitch Ratings, Inc. (Fitch)

Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (Code)

Internal Revenue Service (IRS)

Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (1940 Act)

Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (Moody’s)

Securities Act of 1933, as amended (1933 Act)

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (1934 Act)

S&P Global Ratings (S&P)

T. Rowe Price Hong Kong Limited (Price Hong Kong)

T. Rowe Price Japan, Inc. (Price Japan)

T. Rowe Price International Ltd (Price International)

T. Rowe Price Investment Management, Inc. (Price Investment Management)

T. Rowe Price Singapore Private Ltd. (Price Singapore)

While many Price Funds are offered in more than one share class, not all Price Funds are offered in the share classes described below. The front cover of each Price Fund’s prospectus indicates which share classes are available for the fund.

Investor Class

The Investor Class is available to individual investors, institutions, and a wide variety of other types of investors. The Investor Class may be purchased directly through T. Rowe Price or through a retirement plan or through a financial intermediary. A Price Fund (other than an institutional fund) that does not indicate a specific share class after its name is considered to be the Investor Class of that fund.

I Class

The I Class requires a $500,000 minimum initial investment per fund per account registration, although the initial investment minimum generally is waived or reduced for financial intermediaries, eligible retirement plans, certain client accounts for which T. Rowe Price or its affiliate has discretionary investment authority, qualifying directly held accounts, and certain other types of accounts.

Advisor Class

The Advisor Class is designed to be sold through various financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, banks, insurance companies, retirement plan recordkeepers, and financial advisors. The Advisor Class must be purchased through an eligible intermediary (except for certain retirement plans held directly with T. Rowe Price). The Advisor Class requires an agreement between the financial intermediary and T. Rowe Price to be executed prior to investment.

R Class

The R Class is designed to be sold only through various third-party intermediaries that offer employer-sponsored defined contribution retirement plans and certain other accounts, including brokers, dealers, banks, insurance companies, retirement plan recordkeepers, and others. The R Class must be purchased through an eligible intermediary (except for certain retirement plans held directly with T. Rowe Price). The R Class requires an agreement between the financial intermediary and T. Rowe Price to be executed prior to investment.

15


Institutional Class

Most of the T. Rowe Price institutional funds are available only in a single share class (referred to as the “Institutional Class”). The institutional funds (other than their F Class shares) generally require a $1 million initial investment minimum, although the minimum may be waived for retirement plans, financial intermediaries maintaining omnibus accounts, and certain other accounts. The Institutional Class is designed for institutional investors, which typically include, but are not limited to: corporations, endowments and foundations, charitable trusts, investment companies and other pooled vehicles, defined benefit and defined contribution retirement plans, broker-dealers, registered investment advisers, banks and bank trust programs, and Section 529 college savings plans. Institutional funds may be purchased directly through T. Rowe Price or through a financial intermediary.

F Class

The F Class is a separate share class of certain institutional funds and is designed to be sold only through financial advisors and certain third-party intermediaries, including brokers, banks, insurance companies, retirement plan recordkeepers, and other financial intermediaries that provide various distribution and administrative services. F Class shares are not intended to be offered by intermediaries through a mutual fund “supermarket” platform. The F Class cannot be purchased directly through T. Rowe Price and must be purchased through a financial intermediary.

Z Class

The Z Class is only available to funds managed by T. Rowe Price and other advisory clients of T. Rowe Price or its affiliates that are subject to a contractual fee for investment management services. The Z Class does not impose sales charges and does not make any administrative fee payments or 12b-1 fee payments to financial intermediaries.

Hedged Equity Fund, Mid-Cap Index Fund, Multi-Sector Account Portfolios, Small-Cap Index Fund, and TRP Reserve Funds

These funds are not available for direct purchase by members of the public. Shares of these funds may only be purchased by or on behalf of mutual funds, Section 529 college savings plans, or certain institutional client accounts for which T. Rowe Price or one of its affiliates has discretionary investment authority.

PART I

Below is a table showing the prospectus and shareholder report dates for each fund. Each prospectus and shareholder report includes information on all share classes available for a fund. The table also lists each fund’s category, which should be used to identify groups of funds that are referenced throughout this SAI. The prospectus date shown for each fund reflects the date that the prospectus will be annually updated once the fund has been in operation at its fiscal year-end.

      

Fund

Fund Category

Fiscal
Year-End

Annual Report
Date

Semiannual
Report Date

Prospectus
Date

Africa & Middle East Fund

International Equity

Oct 31

Oct 31

Apr 30

March 1

All-Cap Opportunities Fund

Equity

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

Asia Opportunities Fund

International Equity

Oct 31

Oct 31

Apr 30

March 1

Balanced Fund

Asset Allocation

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

Blue Chip Growth Fund

Equity

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

California Tax-Free Bond Fund

State Tax-Free Bond

Feb 28

Feb 28

Aug 30

July 1

Capital Appreciation Fund

Equity

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

Cash Reserves Fund

Taxable Money

Oct 31

Oct 31

Apr 30

March 1

China Evolution Equity Fund

International Equity

Oct 31

Oct 31

Apr 30

March 1

Communications & Technology Fund

Equity

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

Corporate Income Fund

Taxable Bond

May 31

May 31

Nov 30

Oct 1

Credit Opportunities Fund

Taxable Bond

May 31

May 31

Nov 30

Oct 1

Diversified Mid-Cap Growth Fund

Equity

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

Dividend Growth Fund

Equity

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

Dynamic Credit Fund

Taxable Bond

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

Dynamic Global Bond Fund

Taxable Bond

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

Emerging Europe Fund

International Equity

Oct 31

Oct 31

Apr 30

March 1

Emerging Markets Bond Fund

International Bond

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

16


      

Fund

Fund Category

Fiscal
Year-End

Annual Report
Date

Semiannual
Report Date

Prospectus
Date

Emerging Markets Corporate Bond Fund

International Bond

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

Emerging Markets Corporate Multi-Sector Account Portfolio

International Bond

Dec 31

Dec 31

June 30

May 1

Emerging Markets Discovery Stock Fund

International Equity

Oct 31

Oct 31

Apr 30