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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2023
or
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from ____ to ____
Commission File No. 1-13653
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AMERICAN FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
Incorporated under the Laws of Ohio                                                                                             IRS Employer I.D. No. 31-1544320
301 East Fourth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202
(513) 579-2121
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common StockAFGNew York Stock Exchange
5.875% Subordinated Debentures due March 30, 2059AFGBNew York Stock Exchange
5.625% Subordinated Debentures due June 1, 2060AFGDNew York Stock Exchange
5.125% Subordinated Debentures due December 15, 2059AFGCNew York Stock Exchange
4.50% Subordinated Debentures due September 15, 2060AFGENew York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer                          Accelerated filer                          Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company                          Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 
State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter: $8.59 billion.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date: 83,661,691 shares (excluding 14.9 million shares owned by subsidiaries) as of February 1, 2024.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Documents Incorporated by Reference:
Proxy Statement for 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (portions of which are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof).


Table of Contents
AMERICAN FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
 
  
Page
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
  
Part I 
Item 1
Business
Item 1A
Risk Factors
Item 1B
Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 1CCybersecurity
Item 2
Properties
Item 3
Legal Proceedings
Item 4
Mine Safety Disclosures
  
Part II 
Item 5
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6
Reserved
Item 7
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk
Item 8
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9
Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A
Controls and Procedures
Item 9B
Other Information
Item 9C
Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
  
Part III 
Item 10
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11
Executive Compensation
Item 12
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
  
Part IV 
Item 15
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules



Table of Contents
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

The disclosures in this Form 10-K contain certain forward-looking statements that are subject to numerous assumptions, risks or uncertainties. The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a safe harbor for forward-looking statements. Some of the forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as “anticipates”, “believes”, “expects”, “projects”, “estimates”, “intends”, “plans”, “seeks”, “could”, “may”, “should”, “will” or the negative version of those words or other comparable terminology. Such forward-looking statements include statements relating to: expectations concerning market and other conditions and their effect on future premiums, revenues, earnings, investment activities and the amount and timing of share repurchases and special dividends; recoverability of asset values; expected losses and the adequacy of reserves for asbestos, environmental pollution and mass tort claims; rate changes; and improved loss experience.
Actual results and/or financial condition could differ materially from those contained in or implied by such forward-looking statements for a variety of reasons including but not limited to the following and those discussed in Item 1A — Risk Factors and in its other reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
changes in financial, political and economic conditions, including changes in interest and inflation rates, currency fluctuations and extended economic recessions or expansions in the U.S. and/or abroad;
performance of securities markets;
new legislation or declines in credit quality or credit ratings that could have a material impact on the valuation of securities in AFG’s investment portfolio;
the availability of capital;
changes in insurance law or regulation, including changes in statutory accounting rules, including modifications to capital requirements;
changes in the legal environment affecting AFG or its customers;
tax law and accounting changes;
levels of natural catastrophes and severe weather, terrorist activities (including any nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological events), incidents of war or losses resulting from pandemics, civil unrest and other major losses;
disruption caused by cyber-attacks or other technology breaches or failures by AFG or its business partners and service providers, which could negatively impact AFG’s business and/or expose AFG to litigation;
development of insurance loss reserves and establishment of other reserves, particularly with respect to amounts associated with asbestos and environmental claims;
availability of reinsurance and ability of reinsurers to pay their obligations;
competitive pressures;
the ability to obtain adequate rates and policy terms;
changes in AFG’s credit ratings or the financial strength ratings assigned by major ratings agencies to AFG’s operating subsidiaries;
the impact of the conditions in the international financial markets and the global economy relating to AFG’s international operations; and
effects on AFG’s reputation, including as a result of environmental, social and governance matters.
The forward-looking statements herein are made only as of the date of this report. The Company assumes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements.
1

Table of Contents
PART I
Item 1. Business
Introduction
American Financial Group, Inc. (“AFG” or the “Company”) is an insurance holding company. Through the operations of Great American Insurance Group, AFG is engaged in property and casualty insurance, focusing on specialized commercial products for businesses. AFG’s in-house team of investment professionals oversees the Company’s investment portfolio. The members of the Great American Insurance Group have been in business for over 150 years. Management believes that approximately 55% of the 2023 gross written premiums in AFG’s Specialty property and casualty group are produced by “top 10” ranked businesses.

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AFG’s address is 301 East Fourth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202; its phone number is (513) 579-2121. SEC filings, news releases, AFG’s Code of Ethics applicable to directors, officers and employees, AFG’s Corporate Social Responsibility Report and other information may be accessed free of charge through AFG’s Internet site at: www.AFGinc.com. (Information on AFG’s Internet site is not part of this Form 10-K.) See Note D — “Segments of Operations” to the financial statements for information on AFG’s assets, revenues and earnings before income taxes by segment.
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Building Long-Term Value for AFG Shareholders
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AFG allows each of its businesses the autonomy to make decisions related to underwriting, claims and policy servicing. This entrepreneurial business model promotes agility, innovative product design, unique applications of pricing segmentation, as well as developing distribution strategies and building relationships in the markets served. Management believes that AFG’s ability to grow book value per share at a double-digit annual rate over time is evidence that the Company’s culture, business model and employee incentive plans create a compelling structure to build long-term value for AFG’s shareholders.

As highlighted in the illustration below, over the past 25 plus years, AFG has sharpened its focus on the businesses that management knows best. This has been accomplished through organic growth, carefully selected acquisitions, start-ups and dispositions. On July 3, 2023, AFG completed the acquisition of Crop Risk Services (“CRS”) from American International Group (“AIG”). CRS is a primary crop insurance general agent based in Decatur, Illinois, with crop year 2022 gross written premiums of approximately $1.2 billion and was the seventh largest provider of multi-peril crop insurance in the United States based on 2022 premiums. As a result of the acquisition, AFG will remain the fifth ranked writer of U.S. crop insurance and the largest U.S. owned participant in the United States multi-peril crop insurance program. In May 2021, AFG completed the sale of its Annuity business to Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company for $3.57 billion in cash.
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Timeline of Selected Start-ups, Acquisitions and Dispositions
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Property and Casualty Insurance Segment

General
AFG’s property and casualty insurance operations provide a wide range of commercial coverages through approximately 35 insurance businesses (at December 31, 2023) that make up the Great American Insurance Group. AFG’s property and casualty insurance operations ultimately report to a single senior executive and operate under a business model that allows local decision-making for underwriting, claims and policy servicing in each of the niche operations. Each business is managed by experienced professionals in particular lines or customer groups and operates autonomously but with certain central controls and accountability. The decentralized approach allows each unit the autonomy necessary to respond to local and specialty market conditions while capitalizing on the efficiencies of centralized investment and administrative support functions. AFG’s property and casualty insurance operations are conducted through the subsidiaries listed in the following table, which includes independent financial strength ratings and 2023 gross written premiums (in millions) for each major subsidiary. These ratings are generally based on concerns for policyholders and agents and are not directed toward the protection of investors. AFG believes that maintaining a rating in the “A” category by A.M. Best is important to compete successfully in most lines of business.
RatingsGross
Written
Premiums
AM BestS&P
Insurance Group
Great American Insurance  A+  A+$7,353 
National Interstate  A+not rated1,112 
Summit (Bridgefield Casualty and Bridgefield Employers)  A+  A+608 
Republic Indemnity  A+  A+218 
Mid-Continent Casualty  A+  A+190 
Other175 
$9,656 

The primary objectives of AFG’s property and casualty insurance operations are to achieve solid underwriting profitability and provide excellent service to its policyholders and agents. Underwriting profitability is measured by the combined ratio, which is a sum of the ratios of losses, loss adjustment expenses (“LAE”), underwriting expenses and policyholder dividends to premiums. A combined ratio under 100% indicates an underwriting profit. The combined ratio does not reflect investment income, other income, other expenses or federal income taxes.

While many costs included in underwriting are readily determined (commissions, administrative expenses and many of the losses on claims reported), the process of determining overall underwriting results is highly dependent upon the use of estimates in the case of losses incurred or expected but not yet reported or developed. Management uses actuarial procedures and projections to determine “point estimates” of ultimate losses. While the process is imprecise and develops amounts which are subject to change over time, management believes that the liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses are adequate.

Financial information is reported in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for shareholder and other investor-related purposes and reported on a statutory basis for U.S. insurance regulatory purposes. Unless indicated otherwise, the financial information presented in this Form 10-K for AFG’s property and casualty insurance operations is presented based on GAAP. Statutory information is only prepared for AFG’s U.S.-based subsidiaries, which represented approximately 98% of AFG’s direct written premiums in 2023, and is provided for industry comparisons or where comparable GAAP information is not readily available.

Major differences for statutory accounting include charging policy acquisition costs to expense as incurred rather than spreading the costs over the periods covered by the policies; reporting investment grade bonds and redeemable preferred stocks at amortized cost rather than fair value; netting of reinsurance recoverables and prepaid reinsurance premiums against the corresponding liabilities rather than reporting such items separately; and charging to surplus certain GAAP assets, such as furniture and fixtures and agents’ balances over 90 days old.

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AFG’s statutory combined ratio averaged 90.9% for the period 2014 to 2023 as compared to 98.4% for the property and casualty commercial lines industry over the same period. AFG believes that its specialty niche focus, product line diversification and underwriting discipline have contributed to the Company’s ability to consistently outperform the industry’s underwriting results. Management’s philosophy is to refrain from writing business that is not expected to produce an underwriting profit even if it is necessary to limit premium growth to do so.
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(*)The sources of the commercial lines industry ratios are ©2024 Conning, Inc., as published in Conning’s Property-Casualty Forecast & Analysis by Line of Insurance 2023Q4 edition and ©2023 A.M. Best Company’s Review & Preview Reports for preceding years.

Property and Casualty Results
Performance measures such as underwriting profit or loss and related combined ratios are often used by property and casualty insurers to help users of their financial statements better understand the company’s performance. See Note D — “Segments of Operations” to the financial statements for the reconciliation of AFG’s earnings before income taxes by significant business segment to the statement of earnings.

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The following table shows the performance of AFG’s property and casualty insurance operations (dollars in millions):
202320222021
Gross written premiums$9,656 $9,057 $7,946 
Ceded reinsurance(2,964)(2,851)(2,373)
Net written premiums$6,692 $6,206 $5,573 
Net earned premiums$6,531 $6,085 $5,404 
Loss and LAE4,017 3,629 3,157 
Underwriting expenses1,883 1,680 1,514 
Underwriting gain$631 $776 $733 
GAAP ratios:
Loss and LAE ratio61.6 %59.7 %58.5 %
Underwriting expense ratio28.8 %27.6 %28.0 %
Combined ratio90.4 %87.3 %86.5 %
Statutory ratios:
Loss and LAE ratio60.3 %57.3 %55.9 %
Underwriting expense ratio30.2 %29.7 %29.6 %
Combined ratio90.5 %87.0 %85.5 %
Industry statutory combined ratio (*)
All lines102.2 %104.0 %100.0 %
Commercial lines94.0 %98.4 %95.9 %
(*)The sources of the industry ratios are ©2024 Conning, Inc., as published in Conning’s Property-Casualty Forecast & Analysis by Line of Insurance 2023Q4 edition and ©2023 A.M. Best Company’s Review & Preview Reports for preceding years.

As with other property and casualty insurers, AFG’s operating results can be adversely affected by unpredictable catastrophe losses. Certain natural disasters (hurricanes, severe storms, earthquakes, tornadoes, floods, etc.) and other incidents of major loss (explosions, civil disorder, terrorist events, fires, etc.) are classified as catastrophes by industry associations. Losses from these incidents are usually tracked separately from other business of insurers because of their sizable effects on overall operations. Total net losses to AFG’s insurance operations from current accident year catastrophes were $162 million in 2023, $88 million in 2022 and $86 million in 2021 and are included in the table above.

AFG generally seeks to reduce its exposure to catastrophes through individual risk selection, including minimizing coastal and known fault-line exposures, and through the purchase of reinsurance. AFG’s net exposure to a catastrophic earthquake or windstorm that industry models indicate should statistically occur once in every 500 years (a “500-year event”) is expected to be approximately 2% of AFG’s Shareholders’ Equity.

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Property and Casualty Insurance Products
AFG is focused on growth opportunities in what it believes to be more profitable specialty businesses where AFG personnel are experts in particular lines of business or customer groups. AFG believes it is an innovator in risk sharing and alternative risk transfer programs for policyholders and agents. For example, AFG provides: risk sharing alternatives in the passenger transportation, moving and storage and trucking industries, agency and group risk sharing programs, unique coverage options for workers’ compensation accounts that include higher retentions and specialty loss prevention and innovative commission structures for distribution partners who produce profitable business. These programs and offerings help align the interests of customers and distribution partners with AFG’s interests.

The following are examples of AFG’s specialty businesses grouped by sub-segment:
Property and Transportation
Agricultural-relatedFederally reinsured multi-peril crop (allied lines) insurance covering most perils as well as crop-hail, equine mortality and other coverages for full-time operating farms/ranches and agribusiness operations on a nationwide basis.
Commercial AutomobileCoverage for vehicles (such as buses and trucks) in a broad range of businesses including the moving and storage and transportation industries, alternative risk transfer programs, a specialized physical damage product for the trucking industry and other specialty transportation niches.
Property, Inland Marine and Ocean Marine
Coverage primarily for commercial properties, builders’ risk, contractors’ equipment, property, motor truck cargo, marine cargo, boat dealers, marina operators and dealers and excursion vessels.
Specialty Casualty
Excess and Surplus
Liability, umbrella and excess coverage for unique, volatile or hard-to-place risks, using rates and forms that generally do not have to be approved by state insurance regulators.
Executive and Professional LiabilityCoverage for directors and officers of businesses and non-profit organizations, errors and omissions, cyber, and mergers and acquisitions.
General LiabilityCoverage for contractor-related businesses, energy development and production risks, and environmental liability risks.
Targeted ProgramsCoverage (primarily liability and property) for social service agencies, leisure, entertainment and non-profit organizations, customized solutions for other targeted markets and alternative risk programs using agency captives.
Umbrella and Excess LiabilityCoverage in excess of primary layers.
Workers’ CompensationCoverage for prescribed benefits payable to employees who are injured on the job.
Specialty Financial
Fidelity and SuretyFidelity and crime coverage for government, mercantile and financial institutions and surety coverage for various types of contractors and public and private corporations.
Lease and Loan ServicesCoverage for insurance risk management programs for lending and leasing institutions, including equipment leasing and collateral and lender-placed mortgage property insurance.
Trade CreditExport and domestic trade credit insurance products for global trade and related financing activities.

Management believes specialization is the key element to the underwriting success of these business units. These specialty businesses are opportunistic and premium volume will vary based on prevailing market conditions. AFG continually evaluates expansion in existing markets and opportunities in new specialty markets that meet its profitability objectives. Likewise, AFG will withdraw from markets that do not meet its profit objectives or business strategy.

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2023 SPECIALTY PROPERTY AND CASUALTY BY SUB-SEGMENT
82958296
(*)Excludes underwriting profits and losses recorded outside of AFG’s Specialty property and casualty group.

Premium Distribution
The following table shows the net written premiums by sub-segment for AFG’s property and casualty insurance operations for 2023, 2022 and 2021 (in millions):
202320222021
Property and transportation$2,551 $2,515 $2,157 
Specialty casualty2,944 2,728 2,540 
Specialty financial935 711 658 
Other specialty (*)262 252 218 
$6,692 $6,206 $5,573 
(*)Premiums assumed by AFG’s internal reinsurance program from the operations that make up AFG’s Specialty property and casualty insurance sub-segments.

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The geographic distribution of statutory direct written premiums by AFG’s U.S.-based insurers for 2023, 2022 and 2021 is shown below. Approximately 2% of AFG’s direct written premiums in 2023 were derived from non U.S.-based insurers.
202320222021202320222021
California12.6 %12.7 %13.0 %
New Jersey
2.5 %2.3 %2.4 %
Florida8.9 %8.2 %8.7 %
Iowa
2.5 %2.7 %2.4 %
Texas7.5 %7.0 %6.6 %Michigan2.3 %2.4 %2.3 %
New York5.8 %5.9 %6.8 %Pennsylvania2.3 %2.2 %2.5 %
Illinois5.4 %6.2 %6.2 %North Carolina2.2 %2.0 %2.0 %
Georgia3.4 %3.2 %3.3 %Ohio2.1 %2.2 %2.2 %
Missouri2.8 %2.9 %2.5 %Other34.6 %34.5 %33.9 %
Indiana2.6 %2.7 %2.6 %100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Kansas
2.5 %2.9 %2.6 %

2023 STATUTORY DIRECT WRITTEN PREMIUMS
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Reinsurance
Consistent with standard practice of most insurance companies, AFG reinsures a portion of its property and casualty business with other insurance companies and assumes a relatively small amount of business from other insurers. AFG uses reinsurance for two primary purposes: (i) to provide higher limits of coverage than it would otherwise be willing to provide (i.e. large line capacity) and (ii) to protect its business by reducing the impact of catastrophes. The availability and cost of reinsurance are subject to prevailing market conditions, which may affect the volume and profitability of business that is written. AFG is subject to credit risk with respect to its reinsurers, as the ceding of risk to reinsurers does not relieve AFG of its liability to its insureds until claims are fully settled.

Reinsurance is provided on either a facultative or treaty basis. Facultative reinsurance is generally provided on a risk-by-risk basis. Individual risks are ceded and assumed based on an offer and acceptance of risk by each party to the transaction. AFG purchases facultative reinsurance, both pro rata and excess of loss, depending on the risk and available
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reinsurance markets. Treaty reinsurance provides for risks meeting prescribed criteria to be automatically ceded and assumed according to contract provisions.

Catastrophe Reinsurance AFG has taken steps to limit its exposure to wind and earthquake losses through individual risk selection, including minimizing coastal and known fault-line exposures, and purchasing catastrophe reinsurance. In addition, AFG purchases catastrophe reinsurance for its workers’ compensation businesses. Although the cost of catastrophe reinsurance varies depending on exposure and the level of worldwide loss activity, AFG continues to obtain reinsurance coverage in adequate amounts at acceptable rates.

In January 2024, AFG’s property and casualty insurance subsidiaries renewed their catastrophe reinsurance coverages. For AFG’s U.S.-based operations, the Company placed $55 million of coverage in excess of a $70 million per event primary retention in the traditional reinsurance markets.

In addition to traditional reinsurance, AFG has catastrophe coverage through a catastrophe bond structure with Riverfront Re Ltd., which provides coverage of up to 94% of $323 million for catastrophe losses in excess of $127 million through December 31, 2024.

The commercial marketplace requires large policy limits ($25 million or more) in several of AFG’s lines of business, including certain property, environmental, aviation, executive and professional liability, umbrella and excess liability, and fidelity and surety coverages. Since these limits exceed management’s desired exposure to an individual risk, AFG generally enters into reinsurance agreements to reduce its net exposure under such policies to an acceptable level. Reinsurance continues to be available for this large line capacity exposure with satisfactory pricing and terms.

In addition to the catastrophe and large line capacity reinsurance programs discussed above, AFG purchases reinsurance on a product-by-product basis. AFG regularly reviews the financial strength of its current and potential reinsurers. These reviews include consideration of credit ratings, available capital, claims paying history and expertise. This process periodically results in the transfer of risks to more financially secure reinsurers. Substantially all reinsurance is ceded to companies with investment grade S&P ratings or is secured by “funds withheld” or other collateral. Under “funds withheld” arrangements, AFG retains ceded premiums to fund ceded losses as they become due from the reinsurer. Recoverables from the following companies were individually between 5% and 13% of AFG’s total property and casualty reinsurance recoverable (including prepaid reinsurance premiums and net of payables to reinsurers) at December 31, 2023: Everest Reinsurance Company, Hannover Rueck SE, Munich Reinsurance America, Inc., Swiss Reinsurance America Corporation and Transatlantic Reinsurance Company. No other reinsurers exceeded 5% of AFG’s property and casualty reinsurance recoverable.

The following table presents (by type of coverage) the amount of each loss above the specified retention covered by treaty reinsurance programs in AFG’s U.S.-based property and casualty insurance operations (in millions) as of January 1, 2024:

Reinsurance Coverage
AFG Maximum Loss (b)
Primary Retention
Coverage Amount
AFG Participation (a)
%$
U.S.-based operations:
California Workers’ Compensation$$148 %$$
Summit Workers’ Compensation35 — %— 
Other Workers’ Compensation48 %
Commercial Umbrella48 13 %
Property — General10 40 %11 
Property — Catastrophe (c)70 55 — %— 70 
(a)Includes the participation of AFG’s internal reinsurance program.
(b)Maximum loss per event for claims up to reinsurance coverage limit.
(c)Although AFG’s maximum potential loss per event is generally $70 million, there are certain unlikely scenarios where AFG’s exposure could be as high as $73 million.

In addition to the coverage shown above, AFG reinsures its multi-peril crop insurance (“MPCI”) business through the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (“FCIC”) based on the Standard Reinsurance Agreement (“SRA”). AFG can elect the desired retention of risk on a state-by-state, county, crop or plan basis according to the SRA. The SRA also includes an additional fixed percentage quota share cede. AFG typically reinsures 10% to 20% of MPCI gross written premiums with the FCIC. AFG also purchases quota share reinsurance on its crop business in the private market. This quota share provides for a ceding commission to AFG and a profit-sharing provision. During both 2023 and 2022, AFG reinsured 50%
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of its crop premiums not reinsured by the FCIC in the private market and purchased stop loss protection coverage for the remaining portion of the business. In 2024, AFG expects to continue to reinsure 50% of the premiums not reinsured by the FCIC in the private market.

The balance sheet caption “Recoverables from reinsurers” included approximately $189 million on paid losses and LAE and $4.29 billion on unpaid losses and LAE at December 31, 2023. These amounts are net of allowances of approximately $10 million for expected credit losses on reinsurance recoverables. The collectability of a reinsurance balance is based upon the financial condition of a reinsurer as well as individual claim considerations.

Reinsurance premiums ceded and assumed are presented in the following table (in millions):
202320222021
Reinsurance ceded$2,964 $2,851 $2,373 
Reinsurance ceded, excluding crop1,878 1,768 1,665 
Reinsurance assumed — including involuntary pools and associations347 283 246 

Loss and Loss Adjustment Expense Reserves
The consolidated financial statements include the estimated liability for unpaid losses and LAE of AFG’s insurance subsidiaries. This liability represents estimates of the ultimate net cost of all unpaid losses and LAE and is determined by using case-basis evaluations, actuarial projections and management’s judgment. These estimates are subject to the effects of changes in claim amounts and frequency and are periodically reviewed and adjusted as additional information becomes known. In accordance with industry practices, such adjustments are reflected in current year operations. Generally, reserves for reinsurance assumed and involuntary pools and associations are reflected in AFG’s results at the amounts reported by those entities. See Note O — “Insurance — Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves” to the financial statements for information on the development of AFG’s liability for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses by accident year as well as a progression of the liability on a GAAP basis over the past three years.

A reconciliation of the liability for losses and LAE reported in the annual statements filed with the state insurance departments in accordance with statutory accounting principles (“SAP”) to the liability reported in the accompanying consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP at December 31, 2023 follows (in millions):
Liability reported on a SAP basis, net of $101 million of retroactive reinsurance
$8,412 
Reinsurance recoverables, net of allowance4,288 
Other, including reserves of foreign insurers387 
Liability reported on a GAAP basis$13,087 

Asbestos and Environmental-related (“A&E”) Insurance Reserves   AFG’s property and casualty group, like many others in the industry, has A&E claims arising in most cases from general liability policies written more than thirty-five years ago. The establishment of reserves for such A&E claims presents unique and difficult challenges and is subject to uncertainties significantly greater than those presented by other types of claims. For a discussion of these uncertainties, see Item 7 Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — “Uncertainties — Asbestos and Environmental-related (“A&E”) Insurance Reserves” and Note N — “Contingencies” to the financial statements.

The following table (in millions) is a progression of the property and casualty group’s A&E reserves.
202320222021
Reserves at beginning of year$385 $408 $422 
Incurred losses and LAE— — — 
Paid losses and LAE(15)(23)(14)
Reserves at end of year, net of reinsurance recoverable370 385 408 
Reinsurance recoverable, net of allowance128 140 147 
Gross reserves at end of year$498 $525 $555 

In addition to its ongoing internal monitoring of asbestos and environmental exposures, AFG has historically conducted periodic comprehensive external studies of its asbestos and environmental reserves relating to the run-off operations of its property and casualty insurance segment and its exposures related to former railroad and manufacturing operations and sites with the aid of specialty actuarial, engineering and consulting firms and outside counsel, with an in-depth internal review during all other years.

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An in-depth internal review of AFG’s A&E reserves was completed in the third quarter of 2023 by AFG’s internal A&E claims specialists in consultation with specialty outside counsel. The 2023 internal review identified no new trends and recent claims activity was generally consistent with AFG’s expectations resulting from AFG’s in-depth internal reviews in 2022 and 2021 and most recent external study in 2020. As a result, the 2023 review resulted in no net change to AFG’s property and casualty insurance segment’s asbestos and environmental reserves. Over the past few years, the focus of AFG’s asbestos claims litigation has shifted to smaller companies and companies with ancillary exposures. AFG’s insureds with these exposures have been the driver of the property and casualty segment’s asbestos reserve increases in recent years.

Marketing
The property and casualty insurance group directs its sales efforts primarily through independent insurance agents and brokers, although small portions are written through employee agents. Independent agents and brokers generally receive a commission on the sale of each policy. Some agents and brokers are eligible for a bonus commission based on the overall profitability of policies or volume of business placed with AFG by the broker or agent in a particular year. The property and casualty insurance group writes insurance through several thousand agents and brokers.

Competition
AFG’s property and casualty insurance businesses compete with other individual insurers, state funds and insurance groups of varying sizes, some of which are mutual insurance companies possessing competitive advantages in that all their profits inure to their policyholders. See Item 1A Risk Factors. AFG also competes with self-insurance plans, captive programs and risk retention groups. Due to the specialty nature of these coverages, competition is based primarily on service to policyholders and agents, specific characteristics of products offered and reputation for claims handling. Financial strength ratings, price, commissions and profit-sharing terms are also important factors. Management believes that sophisticated data analysis for refinement of risk profiles, extensive specialized knowledge and loss prevention service have helped AFG compete successfully.

Human Capital Resources

Culture
AFG’s principal cultural goal is for all employees to feel included, respected, safe and empowered to perform at their best. The Company helps employees succeed by cultivating specialized knowledge and offering professional education and leadership development in a service-oriented culture. AFG respects human rights, appreciates diversity and inclusion and values the unique perspective each employee brings to the workplace.

AFG believes that when employees feel actively engaged with the Company’s mission and strategy, they deliver higher levels of service to its customers and create better results for its business. AFG strives to attract diverse and exceptional people who can grow within AFG by fostering a workplace culture that inspires and rewards people and by developing a workforce that can help the Company meet its current and future goals.

Employees and Engagement
As of December 31, 2023, the Company had approximately 8,500 employees, of which approximately 7,700 were employed at Great American Insurance Group, and approximately 49% of AFG’s workforce were women.

AFG believes that its strong culture and values, along with the resources, competitive compensation and benefits, training and development and other opportunities afforded its employees, contribute meaningfully to what the Company views as positive retention and recruitment trends over the long-term. The Company’s voluntary turnover rate in 2023 was approximately 7.4%. The Company believes that its overall average employee tenure, which is nearly 10.5 years, and average tenure of over 18 years for the Company’s approximately 175 most senior leaders, evidences the Company’s relative success in growing careers.

To help inform management on employees’ views and perspectives on key matters, on a triennial basis, AFG has conducted, and now plans to conduct on a biennial basis, an employee engagement survey (“Employee Survey”). The Employee Survey enables each participant to provide anonymous feedback in response to questions on a broad scope of issues, including culture, engagement, development, diversity, empowerment and other issues that AFG believes are important measures of long-term employee satisfaction. With the benefit of this direct feedback, management can assess employees’ perspectives on salient issues, thereby informing management’s decisions on which practices should remain unchanged and which should be considered for potential enhancement or revision. AFG’s most recent Employee Survey was conducted in 2022. Employee participation was high, with 92% of the Company’s employees completing the survey. Management was encouraged by this strong engagement and by what management viewed as positive overall results, which on the whole reaffirmed management’s belief that employees appreciate the Company’s culture and the
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opportunities available to them and understand their link to AFG’s strategy and business. By way of example, some of the Employee Survey results included the following:

94% of employees agreed that “the people in my work group are committed to delivering high-quality products and services”;
95% of employees agreed that “I understand how my job contributes to the organization’s strategy and goals”; and
92% of employees agreed that “I would recommend the organization as a good place to work”.

The results of the Employee Survey are reviewed and discussed by AFG management. Those results serve as an important source of information for management in shaping decisions that impact the Company’s employees.

Investing in Employees

Training and Development   AFG offers training programs designed to encourage people to build careers in insurance and develop professional skills that positively impact employees’ careers as well as AFG’s customers and business. These include tuition reimbursement programs, monetary incentives and extensive personal and professional learning opportunities. Professional development is one of many reasons why AFG believes average employee tenure exceeds industry averages.

Compensation and Benefits   AFG provides a competitive benefits package that includes an extensive wellness program and paid time away from work for employees to maintain a healthy work-life balance. AFG offers onsite fitness centers at many of its locations, financial incentives for taking care of one’s health and health management programs to increase employees’ engagement with their healthcare providers. AFG also provides six weeks of paid parental leave for employees to care for and bond with their newborn or newly adopted child.

Being a responsible employer and contributing to communities’ economic sustainability includes providing employees the opportunity to have the ability and access to achieve their financial goals. AFG maintains competitive and equitable pay by conducting regular market comparisons. AFG offers an employee stock purchase program, a retirement savings plan with employer matching contributions and company-wide profit sharing programs. In addition, employees have access to professional investment and retirement planning advisors to help prepare for their financial future.

Safety and Security   AFG prioritizes workplace safety and is dedicated to minimizing employees’ risk of accident or injury. AFG’s obligations and procedures are outlined in our Workplace Safety and Security Policy along with our Safety and Accident Reporting Policy. AFG is firmly committed to and maintains a policy of providing a work environment free from harassment of any kind, including sexual harassment. This includes intentional and unintentional harassment based on any legally protected classification under applicable federal, state, or local law.

Succession Planning   As AFG’s success is driven principally by the efforts of its employees, many of whom are specialized experts in their field or area of practice, the Company views succession planning as critical to continuing its track record of strong financial performance. The Company maintains a consistent and methodical approach to succession planning, aimed at identifying successors to senior leaders and identifying and developing future leaders. Succession planning with regard to senior positions is also reviewed with AFG’s Board of Directors.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion   The Company values diversity and recognizes the strategic and business benefits derived when people with different cultures, backgrounds and experiences work together to achieve results. In AFG’s most recent Employee Survey, 86% of employees agreed that everyone is treated fairly regardless of their personal background or characteristics. AFG has dedicated employees responsible for our diversity, equity and inclusion efforts who report directly to our Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Human Resources Officer, who in turn reports directly to the Co-CEOs. Our Diversity and Equal Employment Opportunity Policy reinforces our commitment to attracting, developing and retaining a diverse workforce.

We have also established strategic relationships with affinity groups, such as the National African-American Insurance Association (“NAAIA”). The Company’s collaboration with NAAIA provides the opportunity for employee memberships, attendance at its annual conference, networking events and a wide range of leadership and education workshops and seminars. The Company is also a supporter of the Association of Professional Insurance Women, an organization focused on career advancement for women insurance professionals.

Board and Committee Oversight   Our Board of Directors or its Committees discuss with our Co-CEOs and other senior management members, including directly with the Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Human Resources Officer, a range of human capital management issues, including succession planning and development, compensation, benefits, labor trends, including recruitment and retention, engagement, diversity, equity and inclusion and employee feedback.
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Corporate Social Responsibility Report
Please refer to the Company’s Corporate Social Responsibility Report located on AFG’s website for more information regarding human capital programs and initiatives. None of the information provided on the website is incorporated into, or deemed to be a part of, this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file with the SEC.

Investment Portfolio

AFG’s in-house team of investment professionals have followed a consistent strategy over many years and changing economic conditions. Management believes that AFG’s investment expertise has been the driver of strong investment results and effective portfolio risk management over many years.

The following chart shows the allocation of AFG’s $15.26 billion investment portfolio at December 31, 2023:

Investment Portfolio
Investment Portfolio 2023 - Cropped.jpg

For additional information on AFG’s investments, see Note F — “Investments” to the financial statements and Item 7 — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — “Investments.” AFG’s earned yield (net investment income divided by average invested assets) on fixed maturities held by continuing operations was 4.7% for 2023, 3.5% for 2022 and 3.0% for 2021.

The table below compares the total return, which includes changes in fair value, on AFG’s fixed maturities held by continuing operations to a comparable public index. While there is no directly comparable index to AFG’s portfolio, shown below is a widely used benchmark in the financial services industry.
202320222021
Total return on AFG’s fixed maturities7.2 %(4.4 %)1.9 %
Barclays Capital U.S. Universal Bond Index6.2 %(13.0 %)(1.1 %)

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The following table shows AFG’s available for sale fixed maturity investments by Standard & Poor’s Corporation or comparable rating as of December 31, 2023 (dollars in millions).
Amortized Cost, net (*)
Fair Value
Amount%
S&P or comparable rating
AAA, AA, A$7,806 $7,529 73 %
BBB2,300 2,225 21 %
Total investment grade10,106 9,754 94 %
BB211 207 %
B78 73 %
CCC, CC, C40 41 — %
D— %
Total non-investment grade332 325 %
Not rated302 298 %
Total$10,740 $10,377 100 %
(*)Amortized cost, net of allowance for expected credit losses.

At December 31, 2023, 97% (based on statutory carrying value of $10.54 billion) of AFG’s fixed maturity investments held by its insurance companies had a National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) designation of 1 or 2 (the highest of the six designations) based not only on the probability of loss but also on the severity of loss.

Regulation

AFG’s insurance company subsidiaries are subject to U.S. and international regulation in the jurisdictions where they do business. In general, the insurance laws of the various jurisdictions establish regulatory agencies with broad administrative powers governing, among other things, premium rates, solvency standards, licensing of insurers, agents and brokers, trade practices, forms of policies, maintenance of specified reserves and capital for the protection of policyholders, deposits of securities for the benefit of policyholders, investment activities and relationships between insurance subsidiaries and their parents and affiliates. Various transactions between insurance subsidiaries and their parents and affiliates must receive prior approval of the applicable insurance regulatory authorities and be disclosed.

U.S. Regulation

Holding Company Statutes   AFG is subject to state statutes governing insurance holding company systems. Typically, those statutes require that AFG periodically file information with the appropriate state insurance commissioner, including information concerning capital structure, ownership, financial condition, dividend payments and other certain transactions with affiliates, and general business operations.

Risk Based Capital Requirements   The NAIC and state insurance departments use a risk-based capital (“RBC”) formula that is designed to measure the adequacy of an insurer’s statutory surplus in relation to the risks inherent in its business. The RBC formula develops risk adjusted target levels of adjusted statutory capital by applying certain factors to various asset, premium and reserve items. The insurance company’s state of domicile imposes RBC requirements.

Statutory Accounting Principles   Each U.S. insurance subsidiary is required to file detailed quarterly and annual reports, including financial statements, in accordance with prescribed statutory accounting rules, with regulatory officials in the jurisdictions in which they conduct business. The quarterly and annual financial reports filed with the state insurance departments utilize statutory accounting principles (“SAP”) that are different from U.S. GAAP. In developing SAP, insurance regulators were primarily concerned with monitoring the solvency of insurance companies to assure an insurer’s ability to pay all its current and future obligations to policyholders.

Cybersecurity Regulations   Numerous states have enacted new insurance laws that require certain regulated entities to implement and maintain comprehensive information security programs to safeguard the personal information of insureds. For example, the New York State Department of Financial Services (“NYDFS”) cybersecurity regulation requires banks, insurance companies and other financial services institutions regulated by the NYDFS to establish and maintain a cybersecurity program “designed to protect consumers and ensure the safety and soundness of New York State’s financial services industry.” The NAIC adopted an Insurance Data Security Model Law which, when adopted by the states, requires licensed insurance entities to comply with detailed information security requirements. To date, the Insurance Data Security
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Model Law has been adopted by a number of states, including Ohio, where several of AFG’s insurance subsidiaries are domiciled.

Certain states are developing or have developed regulations related to privacy and data security. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act, broadly regulates the collection, processing and disclosure of California residents’ personal information, imposes limits on the “sale” and “sharing” of personal information and grants California residents certain rights to, among other things, access and delete data about them in certain circumstances.

Own Risk and Solvency Assessment   AFG must submit an Own Risk and Solvency Assessment Summary Report (“ORSA”) at least annually to its lead state insurance regulator. The ORSA, which is a component of an insurer’s enterprise risk management framework, is a confidential internal assessment of the material and relevant risks associated with an insurer’s current business plan and the sufficiency of capital resources to support those risks.

Dividends   The laws of the domiciliary states of AFG’s U.S. insurance subsidiaries govern the amount of dividends that may be paid to its shareholders in any twelve-month period, generally based on net earnings or statutory surplus. Under applicable restrictions, the maximum amount of dividends available to AFG in 2024 from its insurance subsidiaries without seeking prior regulatory approval is approximately $944 million.

Investment Regulation   Investments must comply with applicable laws and regulations that prescribe the kind, quality and concentration of investments. In general, these laws and regulations permit investments in federal, state and municipal obligations, corporate bonds, preferred and common equity securities, mortgage loans, real estate and certain other investments, subject to specified limits and certain other qualifications.

Federal Regulation

Although the federal government and its regulatory agencies generally do not directly regulate the business of insurance, federal legislation and administrative rules adopted apply to AFG’s business. For instance, privacy laws, such as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and the Fair Credit Reporting Act, affect AFG’s day-to-day operations. AFG is also subject to other federal laws, such as the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act (“TRIA”), the Nonadmitted and Reinsurance Reform Act (“NRRA”), the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), and the rules and regulations of the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”).

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank”), contains insurance industry-specific provisions, including establishment of the Federal Insurance Office (“FIO”) and streamlining the regulation and taxation of surplus lines insurance and reinsurance among the states. The FIO, part of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, has limited authority and no direct regulatory authority over the business of insurance. The FIO’s principal mandates include monitoring the insurance industry, monitoring the extent to which traditionally underserved communities and consumers have access to affordable non-health insurance products, collecting insurance industry information and data and representing the U.S. with international insurance regulators.

International Regulation

AFG operates in limited foreign jurisdictions where its operations are subject to regulation and supervision of the various jurisdictions. These regulations, which vary depending on the jurisdiction, include, among others, solvency and market conduct regulations, including Solvency II; anti-corruption and anti-terrorist financing guidelines, laws and regulations; various privacy, insurance, tax, tariff, trade and sanctions laws and regulations, including the EU and UK General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”); and corporate, employment, intellectual property and investment laws and regulations. AFG has foreign insurance company subsidiaries domiciled in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Mexico, Bermuda, and the Cayman Islands and branch operations in Canada and Singapore, all of which are subject to regulation by the insurance regulator of such jurisdiction.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

In addition to the other information set forth in this report, particularly information under “Forward-Looking Statements” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” the following are the material factors affecting AFG’s business. Any one of these factors could cause AFG’s actual results to vary materially from recent results or from anticipated future results. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to AFG or that AFG currently deems to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect AFG’s business, financial condition or results of operations.

RISKS RELATING TO AFG’S INSURANCE OPERATIONS, DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTS
AFG’s results of operations could be adversely impacted by catastrophes, both natural and man-made, pandemics, severe weather conditions or climate change.
Catastrophes can be caused by unpredictable natural events such as hurricanes, windstorms, severe storms, tornadoes, floods, hailstorms, earthquakes, explosions and fire, and by other events, such as terrorist attacks and civil unrest, as well as pandemics and other similar outbreaks in many parts of the world. These events may have a material adverse effect on AFG’s workforce and business operations as well as the workforce and operations of AFG’s customers and independent agents.

The extent of gross losses for AFG’s insurance operations from a catastrophe event is a function of both the total amount of insured exposure in the area affected by the event and the severity of the event. In addition, certain catastrophes could result in both property and non-property claims from the same event. AFG purchases catastrophe reinsurance as protection against catastrophe losses. Reinsurance is subject to the adequacy and counterparty reinsurance risks described below under “The inability to obtain reinsurance or to collect on ceded reinsurance could adversely affect AFG’s results of operations.” A severe catastrophe or a series of catastrophes could result in losses exceeding AFG’s reinsurance protection and may have a material adverse impact on its results of operations or financial condition.

Changing weather patterns and climate change have added to the unpredictability, frequency and severity of weather-related catastrophes and other losses, such as wildfires or flooding, incurred by the industry in recent years. These changing weather patterns, whether as a result of global climate change caused by human activities or otherwise, make it more difficult for AFG to predict and model catastrophic events, reducing AFG’s ability to accurately price its exposure to such events and mitigate its risks. In addition, claims for catastrophic events, or an unusual frequency of smaller losses in a particular period, such as from lower severity convective storms, could expose AFG to large losses, cause substantial volatility in its results of operations and could have a material adverse effect on its ability to write new business if AFG is not able to adequately assess and reserve for the increased frequency and severity of catastrophes resulting from these environmental factors. In addition, any increase in the frequency or severity of catastrophic events may result in losses exceeding AFG’s reinsurance protection or may result in substantial volatility in or materially impact AFG’s results of operations or financial condition.

Volatility in crop prices, as a result of weather conditions or other events, could adversely impact AFG’s results of operations.
Weather conditions, including too much moisture (flooding or excessive rain), not enough moisture (droughts), and the level of crop prices in the commodities market heavily impact AFG’s crop insurance business. These factors are inherently unpredictable and could result in significant volatility in the results of the crop insurance business from one year to the next. AFG’s crop results could also be negatively impacted by pests and plant disease. A large decline in the commodity prices of one or more of the major crops that AFG insures could have a material adverse effect on AFG’s results of operations or financial condition.

AFG’s results of operations and revenues may fluctuate as a result of many factors, including cyclical changes in the insurance industry.
The results of operations of companies in the property and casualty insurance industry historically have been subject to fluctuations and uncertainties from many factors including competitive pressures, rising loss costs and changes in the level of reinsurance pricing and capacity, among others. Such factors often cause cyclical changes in the insurance industry with effects that are not uniform among product lines. The demand for property and casualty insurance, both admitted and excess and surplus lines, can vary significantly, rising as the overall level of economic activity increases and falling as that activity decreases, causing AFG’s revenues to fluctuate. As a result, AFG’s premium levels, renewal rates, expense ratio and other items could be materially adversely impacted. These factors could produce results that would have a negative impact on AFG’s results of operations and financial condition.

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AFG’s success will depend on its ability to maintain and enhance effective operating procedures and manage risks on an enterprise-wide basis.
Operational risk and losses can result from, among other things, fraud, errors, failure to document transactions properly, failure to obtain proper internal authorization, failure to comply with regulatory requirements, information technology failures or external events. AFG continues to enhance its operating procedures and internal controls to effectively support its business and its regulatory and reporting requirements. The NAIC and state legislatures have increased their focus on risks within an insurer’s holding company system that may pose enterprise risk to insurers. AFG must submit an Own Risk and Solvency Assessment Summary Report (“ORSA”) at least annually to its lead state insurance regulator. The ORSA is a confidential internal assessment of the material and relevant risks associated with an insurer’s current business plan and the sufficiency of capital resources to support those risks.

AFG operates within an enterprise risk management (“ERM”) framework designed to assess and monitor risks. However, assurance that AFG can effectively identify, review and monitor all risks or that all its employees will operate within the ERM framework cannot be guaranteed. Assurances that AFG’s ERM framework will result in the Company accurately identifying all risks and accurately limiting its exposures based on its assessments also cannot be guaranteed. Any ineffectiveness in AFG’s control or procedures or failure to manage these risks may have an adverse effect on AFG’s results of operations and financial condition.

AFG could face unanticipated losses from war, terrorism, political unrest and geopolitical uncertainty which could have a material adverse effect on AFG’s financial condition and results of operations.
AFG has substantial exposure to unexpected losses resulting from war, acts of terrorism, political unrest and geopolitical instability in many regions of the world. Private sector catastrophe reinsurance is limited and generally unavailable for terrorism losses caused by attacks with nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological weapons. On December 20, 2019, the President of the United States signed the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2019 (“TRIP"), extending the program through December 31, 2027. Although TRIP provides benefits in the event of certain acts of terrorism, those benefits are subject to a deductible and to other limitations. AFG cannot predict or eliminate its exposure to events of war, terrorism, political unrest or geopolitical uncertainty, and to the extent that losses from such events occur, AFG’s financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

AFG’s international operations expose it to investment, political and economic risks, including foreign currency and credit risk.
AFG’s international operations expose AFG to additional risks including restrictions such as price controls, capital controls, currency exchange limits, ownership limits and other restrictive or anti-competitive governmental actions or requirements, which could have an adverse effect on AFG’s business and reputation. AFG’s business activities outside the United States may also be subject to political and economic risks, including foreign currency and credit risk.

AFG’s business activities outside the United States subject AFG to additional domestic and foreign laws and regulations, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act and similar laws in other countries that prohibit the making of improper payments to foreign officials. Although AFG has policies and controls in place that are designed to ensure compliance with these laws, if those controls are ineffective and an employee or intermediary fails to comply with applicable laws and regulations, AFG could suffer civil and criminal penalties and AFG’s business and reputation could be adversely affected. Some countries have laws and regulations that lack clarity and, even with local expertise and effective controls, it can be difficult to determine the exact requirements of, and potential liability for non-compliance under, the local laws. Failure to comply with local laws in a particular market may result in substantial liability and could have a significant and negative effect not only on AFG’s business in that market but also on AFG’s reputation generally.

RISKS RELATING TO THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY
Intense competition could adversely affect AFG’s results of operations.
The property and casualty insurance segment operates in a highly competitive industry that is affected by many factors that can cause significant fluctuations in its results of operations. The lines of business in this segment compete with other individual insurers, state funds and insurance groups of varying sizes, some of which are mutual insurance companies possessing competitive advantages in that all their profits inure to their policyholders. The property and casualty insurance segment also competes with self-insurance plans, captive programs and risk retention groups. In addition, certain foreign insurers may be taxed at lower rates, which may result in a competitive advantage over AFG.

In recent years, various types of investors have increasingly sought to participate in the property and casualty insurance industry. Well-capitalized new entrants to the property and casualty insurance industry, or existing competitors that receive substantial infusions of capital or access to third-party capital, provide increasing competition, which may adversely impact
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AFG’s business and profitability. Further, technology companies or other third parties have created, and may in the future create, technology-enabled business models, processes, platforms or alternate distribution channels that may adversely impact AFG’s competitive position in some parts of its business.

AFG may utilize artificial intelligence and machine learning (“AI”) in its business or incorporate AI into its products and services. The AI used by AFG may not operate properly or as expected, which could cause AFG to write policies it may not have otherwise written, misprice policies, assume greater risks, or overpay customer claims, among other potential negative impacts on its business and operations. AFG’s existing competitors, new entrants, technology companies or other third parties may leverage AI to the benefit of their business or operations or may incorporate AI into their products and services more quickly or successfully than AFG, which could make AFG less competitive and negatively impact its results of operations. In addition, if the content, analyses, output or recommendations produced by or with the assistance of AI are unintentionally, or are alleged to be, deficient, inaccurate or misleading, AFG’s business, financial condition and results of operation may be adversely impacted.

Competition is based on many factors, including service to policyholders and agents, product design, reputation for claims handling, price, commissions, ratings and financial strength. The property and casualty market has experienced periods characterized by increased competition, resulting in less restrictive underwriting standards and relatively low premium rates, followed by periods of relatively lower levels of competition, more selective underwriting standards and relatively high premium rates. During periods in which price competition is high or industry underwriting standards have loosened or degraded, AFG may lose business to competitors offering competitive insurance products at lower prices or more favorable terms. Some of AFG’s competitors have more capital and greater resources than AFG and may offer a broader range of products, lower prices or better terms than AFG offers. If competition limits AFG’s ability to write new or renewal business at adequate rates, its results of operations will be adversely affected.

AFG’s revenues could be adversely affected if it is not able to attract and retain independent agents.
AFG’s reliance on the independent agency market makes it vulnerable to a reduction in the amount of business written by agents. Many of AFG’s competitors also rely significantly on the independent agency market. Some of AFG’s competitors offer a wider variety of products or higher commissions. AFG also faces credit risk with respect to its independent agents, as they may not pay all the premiums owed to AFG and it may be difficult or impossible to recover such amounts. A reduction in the number of independent agencies marketing AFG’s products, the failure of agencies to successfully market AFG’s products, changes in the strategy or operations of agencies (including agency consolidation), the inability of AFG to collect amounts owed by agencies or the choice of agencies to reduce their writings of AFG products could adversely affect AFG’s revenues and profitability.

RISKS RELATING TO ESTIMATES, ASSUMPTIONS AND VALUATIONS
AFG’s property and casualty reserves may be inadequate, which could have a material adverse effect on AFG’s results of operations.
Liabilities for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses (“LAE”) do not represent an exact calculation of liability but instead represent management estimates of what the ultimate settlement and administration of claims will cost, supported by actuarial expertise and projection techniques, at a given accounting date. The process of estimating unpaid losses and LAE reserves involves a high degree of judgment and is subject to numerous internal and external factors. Variability is introduced by changes in claims handling procedures, the impact of general and wage inflation on loss cost trends, increasing litigation and erosion of causation and coverage defenses for insurance claims, legislative actions, evolving mass tort issues and varying judgments and viewpoints of the individuals involved in the estimation process, among others. The impact of many of these items on ultimate costs for unpaid losses and LAE is difficult to estimate. Unpaid losses and LAE reserve estimation difficulties also differ significantly by product line due to differences in claim complexity, the volume of claims, the potential severity of individual claims, the determination of an occurrence date for a claim and lags in the time between damage, loss or injury and when a claim is actually reported to the insurer. In addition, the historic development of AFG’s liability for unpaid losses and LAE may not necessarily reflect future trends in the development of these amounts. To the extent that reserves are inadequate and are strengthened, AFG’s profitability would be adversely affected because the amount of any such increase would be treated as a charge to earnings in the period in which the deficiency is recognized.

AFG uses analytical models to assist in its underwriting, reserving and reinsurance purchasing decision-making, and actual results may differ materially from the model outputs and related analyses.
AFG uses various modeling techniques and data analytics to analyze and estimate exposures, loss trends and other risks associated with its assets and liabilities. AFG uses the modeled outputs and related analyses to assist in decision-making
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in areas such as underwriting, claims, reserving, reinsurance and catastrophe risk. The modeled outputs and related analyses are subject to various assumptions, uncertainties, model errors and the inherent limitations of any statistical analysis, including the use of historical internal and industry data. In addition, the modeled outputs and related analyses may from time to time contain inaccuracies, perhaps in material respects, including as a result of inaccurate inputs or applications thereof. Consequently, actual results may differ materially from AFG’s modeled results. AFG may also utilize AI to assist with modeled outputs and related analyses, the results of which may be unintentionally deficient, inaccurate or misleading. If, based upon these models or other factors, AFG underestimates the frequency and/or severity of loss events or overestimates the risks it is exposed to, new business growth and retention of AFG’s existing business may be adversely affected which could have an adverse effect on AFG’s results of operations and financial condition.

Exposure to mass tort claims could materially adversely affect AFG’s results of operations and financial condition.
AFG has current exposures and may in the future have additional exposures arising from its insurance operations and former railroad and manufacturing operations, including those relating to asbestos and environmental matters (“A&E”), as well as other potentially harmful products or substances, such as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (“PFAS”), talc and opioids, or cumulative trauma (e.g. concussion/abuse). Establishing A&E liabilities is subject to uncertainties that are significantly greater than those presented by other types of liabilities. Uncertainties include the long delays between exposure and manifestation of any bodily injury or property damage, difficulty in identifying the source of the asbestos or environmental contamination, long reporting delays, the risks inherent in complex litigation and difficulty in properly allocating liability for the asbestos or environmental damage. As a result, A&E liabilities are subject to revision as new information becomes available and as claims are made and develop. Claimants continue to assert new and novel theories of recovery and expand the right to sue, judicial interpretations continue to evolve, and from time to time, there is proposed state and federal legislation regarding mass tort claim liability, which would also affect AFG’s exposure. In addition, third party funding of litigation has continued to grow, which may increase the number of claims and result in higher jury awards. If AFG has not established adequate reserves to cover future claims, AFG’s results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

RISKS RELATING TO ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND GLOBAL MARKET CONDITIONS
AFG’s investment portfolio is subject to market risk, including changes in interest rates, which could have a material adverse effect on AFG’s results of operations and financial condition.
Investment returns are an important part of AFG’s profitability. AFG’s investments are subject to market-wide risks and fluctuations, including in the fixed maturity and equity securities markets, which could impair its profitability, financial condition and cash flows.

AFG’s investment portfolio is highly concentrated in fixed maturity investments that are sensitive to changes in interest rates. Changes in interest rates may materially adversely affect the performance of some of its investments, including by materially reducing the fair value of and net investment income from fixed maturities and increasing unrealized losses in AFG’s investment portfolio. AFG’s fixed maturity portfolio is also subject to credit risk as certain investments may default or become impaired due to deterioration in the financial condition of issuers of those investments. In addition to the risks applicable to the entire fixed maturity investment portfolio, changes in interest rates can expose AFG to prepayment risks on its mortgage-backed securities. In periods of declining interest rates, mortgage prepayments generally increase and mortgage-backed securities are paid down more quickly, which may require AFG to reinvest the proceeds at lower interest rates.

General economic, financial market and political conditions and conditions in the markets in which AFG operates may materially adversely affect its investment portfolio, results of operations, financial condition and stock price.
General economic, financial market and political conditions and conditions in the markets in which AFG operates could have a material adverse effect on its results of operations and financial condition. Limited availability of credit, deteriorations of the domestic or global equity, debt, mortgage and real estate markets; declines in consumer confidence and consumer spending; increases in prices or in the rate of inflation; periods of high unemployment; persistently low or rapidly increasing interest rates; disruptive geopolitical events and other events outside of AFG’s control, such as a major epidemic or another pandemic (including a renewed surge of COVID-19 or any variants of the virus), could contribute to increased volatility and diminished expectations for the economy and the financial markets, including the value of AFG’s investment portfolio and the market for its stock.

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AFG’s alternative investments may be illiquid and volatile in terms of value and returns, which could negatively affect AFG’s investment income and liquidity.
AFG has invested, and intends to continue to invest in, alternative investments, such as limited partnerships and subordinate tranches of collateralized loan obligations for which changes in value are reported in net earnings. These and other similar investments may have different, more significant risk characteristics than investments in fixed maturity securities, may be more volatile and may be illiquid due to restrictions on sales, transfers and redemption terms, all of which could negatively affect AFG’s investment income and overall portfolio liquidity.

AFG has also invested, and intends to continue to invest in, limited partnerships and other entities that AFG does not control. AFG does not have management or operational control over the investees which may limit AFG’s ability to take actions that could protect or increase the value of the investment. In addition, these investments may be illiquid due to contractual provisions, and AFG may be unable to obtain liquidity through distributions from these investments in a timely manner or on favorable terms.

Alternative or “other” investments may not meet regulatory admissibility requirements or may result in increased regulatory capital charges to the insurance subsidiaries that hold these investments, which could limit those subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends and negatively impact AFG’s liquidity.

AFG’s access to capital may be limited or may not be available on favorable terms.
AFG’s future capital requirements depend on many factors, including rating agency and regulatory requirements, the performance of the investment portfolio, the ability to write new business successfully and the ability to establish premium rates and loss reserves at levels sufficient to cover losses. Financial markets in the U.S. and elsewhere can experience extreme volatility, which exerts downward pressure on stock prices and limits access to the equity and debt markets for certain issuers, including AFG. While AFG can borrow up to $450 million under its revolving credit facility (“2023 Credit Facility”), AFG’s access to funds through the 2023 Credit Facility is dependent on the ability of its banks to meet their funding commitments. There were no borrowings outstanding under the 2023 Credit Facility (or its prior bank credit line) or any other parent company short-term borrowing arrangements during 2023. If AFG cannot obtain adequate capital or sources of credit on favorable terms, or at all, its business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

RISKS RELATED TO TECHNOLOGY, DATA SECURITY AND PRIVACY
AFG may experience difficulties with technology or data security, which could have an adverse effect on its business or reputation.
AFG uses computer systems and services, which may include or utilize AI applications, to store, retrieve, evaluate and utilize company and customer data and information. Systems failures or outages could compromise AFG’s ability to perform business functions in a timely manner, which could harm its ability to conduct business and hurt its relationships with business partners and customers. In the event of a disaster such as a natural catastrophe, an industrial accident, a blackout, a malicious software attack, a terrorist attack or war, AFG’s systems may be inaccessible to employees, customers or business partners for an extended period of time. Even if AFG’s employees are able to report to work, they may be unable to perform their duties for an extended period of time if AFG’s data or systems are disabled or destroyed.

Businesses in the United States and in other countries have increasingly become the targets of “cyberattacks,” “ransomware,” “phishing,” “hacking” or similar illegal or unauthorized intrusions into computer systems and networks. Such events are often highly publicized, can result in significant disruptions to information technology systems and the theft of significant amounts of information as well as funds from online financial accounts, and can cause negative publicity and extensive damage to the reputation of the targeted business, in addition to leading to significant expenses associated with investigation, remediation and customer protection measures. Like others in the insurance industry, AFG experiences cyber-attacks and other attempts to gain unauthorized access to its systems on a regular basis and anticipates continuing to be subject to such attempts. AFG’s administrative and technical controls as well as other preventative actions used to reduce the risk of cyber incidents and protect AFG’s information may be insufficient to detect or prevent future unauthorized access, other physical and electronic break-ins, cyber-attacks or other security breaches to AFG’s computer systems or those of third parties with whom AFG does business.

AFG has outsourced certain technology and business process functions to third parties over which it has no control and may continue to do so in the future. Outsourcing of certain technology and business process functions to third parties may expose AFG to increased risk related to data security or service disruptions. If AFG does not effectively develop, implement and monitor these relationships, third-party providers do not perform as anticipated, technological or other problems are incurred with a transition, or outsourcing relationships relevant to AFG’s business process functions are
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terminated, AFG may not realize expected productivity improvements or cost efficiencies and may experience operational difficulties, increased costs and a loss of business.

The increased risks identified above could expose AFG to data loss, disruption of service, monetary and reputational damages, competitive disadvantage and significant increases in compliance costs and costs to improve the security and resiliency of AFG’s computer systems. The compromise of personal, confidential or proprietary information could also subject AFG to legal liability or regulatory action under evolving cyber-security, data protection and privacy laws and regulations enacted by the U.S. federal and state governments, Canada, the European Union (the “EU”) or other jurisdictions or by various regulatory organizations or exchanges. As a result, AFG’s ability to conduct business and its results of operations might be materially and adversely affected.

Any failure to appropriately collect, administer and protect consumer information could adversely affect AFG’s reputation, subject AFG to fines, claims and penalties, and have a material adverse effect on AFG’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
AFG and certain of its third-party vendors collect and store sensitive data in the ordinary course of AFG’s business, including personal identification information of its employees and that of its customers, vendors, investors and other third parties and may include health information. Laws and regulations in this area are evolving at an international, national and state level and are generally becoming more rigorous, including through the adoption of more stringent subject matter-specific laws, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020), the New York Department of Financial Services’ Cybersecurity Regulation and Ohio’s insurance data security law, which regulate the collection and use of data and security and data breach obligations. The use of AI by AFG or its business partners may also result in potential breaches of existing or future laws or regulations related to privacy or data security. If any disruption or security breach results in a loss or damage to AFG’s data, or inappropriate disclosure of AFG’s confidential information or that of others, it could damage AFG’s reputation, affect its relationships with customers and clients, lead to claims against AFG, result in regulatory action and harm AFG’s business. In addition, AFG may be required to incur significant costs to mitigate the damage caused by any security breach or to protect against future damage.

RISKS RELATED TO FINANCIAL STRENGTH, CREDIT AND COUNTERPARTIES
A downgrade or potential downgrade in AFG’s financial strength and/or credit ratings by one or more rating agencies could adversely affect its business, financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows.
Financial strength ratings are an important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies and may have an effect on an insurance company’s sales. A downgrade out of the “A” category in AFG’s insurers’ claims-paying and financial strength ratings could significantly reduce AFG’s business volumes in certain lines of business, adversely impact AFG’s ability to access the capital markets and increase AFG’s borrowing costs.

In addition to the financial strength ratings of AFG’s principal insurance company subsidiaries, various rating agencies also publish credit ratings for AFG. Credit ratings are indicators of a debt issuer’s ability to meet the terms of debt obligations in a timely manner, are part of AFG’s overall financial profile and affect AFG’s ability to access and the associated cost of certain types of capital. A downgrade in AFG’s credit ratings could have a material adverse effect on AFG’s financial condition and results of operations and cash flows in a number of ways, including adversely limiting access to capital markets, potentially increasing the cost of debt or increasing borrowing costs under AFG’s current revolving credit facility.

The inability to obtain reinsurance or to collect on ceded reinsurance could adversely affect AFG’s results of operations.
AFG purchases reinsurance to limit the amount of risk it retains. Market conditions determine the availability and cost of the reinsurance protection AFG purchases, which affects the level of AFG’s business and profitability, as well as the level and types of risk AFG retains. If AFG is unable to obtain sufficient reinsurance at a cost AFG deems acceptable, AFG may opt to reduce the volume of its underwriting. AFG is also subject to credit risk with respect to its reinsurers, as AFG will remain liable to its insureds regardless of whether a reinsurer is able to meet its obligations under agreements covering the reinsurance ceded. As of December 31, 2023, AFG has $4.48 billion of recoverables from reinsurers on its balance sheet. The collectability of recoverables from reinsurers is subject to uncertainty arising from a number of factors, including a reinsurers’ financial capacity and willingness to make payments under the terms of a reinsurance treaty or contract and changes in market conditions.

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REGULATORY AND LEGAL RISKS
AFG may suffer losses from litigation, including from effects of emerging claim and coverage issues which could materially and adversely affect AFG’s financial condition and business operations.
AFG is involved in routine legal proceedings incidental to its insurance operations and litigation related to asbestos and environmental claims from its historical operations. Litigation by nature is unpredictable, and the outcome of any case is uncertain and could result in liabilities that vary from the amounts AFG has currently recorded. Pervasive or significant changes in the judicial environment relating to matters such as trends in the size of jury awards, developments in the law relating to the liability of insurers or tort defendants, and rulings concerning the availability or amount of certain types of damages could cause AFG’s ultimate liabilities to change from current expectations. In addition, as industry practices and legal, judicial, social and other environmental conditions change, unexpected and unintended issues related to claims and coverage may emerge. These issues may adversely affect AFG’s business, including by extending coverage beyond underwriting intent or by increasing the number, size or types of claims as a result of, among other things, plaintiffs targeting property and casualty insurers in purported class action litigation relating to claims-handling and other practices; increased claims due to third party funding of litigation; and social inflation and legal system abuse influencing trends like more frequent claims, judgments that are unfavorable for insurers and an increase in “nuclear verdicts” leading to higher jury awards. Changes in federal or state tort litigation laws or other applicable law could have a similar effect. It is not possible to predict changes in the judicial and legislative environment, including in connection with asbestos and environmental claims. In addition, potential exposure to losses related to PFAS, whether through AFG’s insurance operations or its former railroad and manufacturing operations, are inherently difficult to forecast or estimate, as many factors could influence potential liability for any such losses. These factors may include developments in PFAS-related litigation, including the establishment or expansion of theories of causation and liability; new or enhanced rules, regulations and enforcement actions by the U.S. federal government and its agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency, as well as state governments and agencies; and medical or research findings pertaining to actual or potential harm or illness to human health resulting from PFAS. AFG’s business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity could also be adversely affected if judicial or legislative developments cause AFG’s ultimate liabilities to increase from current expectations.

AFG is subject to comprehensive regulation, and its ability to earn profits may be restricted by these regulations.
AFG is subject to comprehensive regulation by government agencies in the states and countries where its insurance company subsidiaries are domiciled and where these subsidiaries issue policies and handle claims. Most insurance regulations are designed to protect the interests of AFG’s policyholders and third-party claimants as opposed to its investors.

While the federal government’s role in regulating insurance companies is currently limited, the Dodd-Frank Act established a Federal Insurance Office (“FIO”) within the U.S. Department of Treasury to collect data on the insurance industry, recommend changes to the state system of insurance regulation and preempt certain state insurance laws. The potential impact on AFG remains unclear, but the implementation of any federal insurance regulations that constrain AFG’s business opportunities or reduce investment flexibility could change the competitive landscape of the financial services sector or the insurance industry, make it more expensive for AFG to conduct its business and otherwise have a material adverse effect on AFG’s financial condition and results of operations.

Environmental, Social, and Governance standards (“ESG”) and sustainability have become major topics that encompass a wide range of issues, including climate change and other environmental risks. For example, California recently adopted two new climate-related bills, which require companies doing business in California that meet certain revenue thresholds to publicly disclose certain greenhouse gas emissions data and climate-related financial risk reports, and compliance with such requirements will require significant effort and resources. AFG is subject to complex and changing laws, regulation and public policy debates relating to climate change which are difficult to predict and quantify and may have an adverse impact on its business. Changes in regulations relating to climate change may result in an increase in the cost of doing business or a decrease in premiums in certain lines of business.

As a participant in the federal crop insurance program, AFG could also be impacted by regulatory and legislative changes affecting that program. For example, the reinsurance levels that the federal government provides to authorized carriers could be reduced by future legislation. AFG will continue to monitor new and changing federal regulations and the potential impact, if any, on its insurance company subsidiaries.

Both state and federal regulators in the U.S., as well as regulators in foreign jurisdictions, including the EU (whether under its regulatory framework proposed in April 2021 or otherwise), continue to evaluate and assess potential laws and regulations to limit and restrict companies’ use of AI, and enact new and expanding bases of liability for businesses
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utilizing AI. Such laws and regulations may limit or prevent AFG’s development and use of AI applications, or may eliminate or restrict the confidentiality of our proprietary technology, which could adversely affect AFG’s business, operations and financial results, including by reducing the utility of AFG’s products, increasing AFG’s costs and exposing AFG to litigation or other liabilities.

Existing insurance-related laws and regulations may become more restrictive in the future or new restrictive laws may be enacted; it is not possible to predict the potential effects of these laws and regulations. The costs of compliance or the failure to comply with existing or future regulations could impose significant burdens on AFG.

As a holding company, AFG is dependent on the operations of its insurance company subsidiaries to meet its obligations and pay future dividends.
AFG is a holding company and a legal entity separate and distinct from its insurance company subsidiaries. As a holding company without significant operations of its own, AFG’s principal sources of funds are dividends and other distributions from its insurance company subsidiaries. State insurance laws differ from state to state but may, absent advance regulatory approval, restrict the maximum amount of dividends that may be paid by an insurer to its shareholders in any twelve-month period. AFG’s rights to participate in any distribution of assets of its insurance company subsidiaries are subject to prior claims of policyholders and creditors (except to the extent that its rights, if any, as a creditor are recognized). Consequently, AFG’s ability to pay its debts, expenses and dividends to its shareholders may be limited.

Statutory capital requirements set by the NAIC and the various state insurance regulatory bodies establish regulations that provide minimum capitalization requirements based on risk-based capital (“RBC”) ratios for insurance companies. Statutory surplus and RBC ratios may change in a given year based on a number of factors, including statutory earnings/losses, reserve changes, excess capital held to support growth, equity market and interest rate changes, the value of investment securities and changes to the RBC formulas. Increases in the amount of capital or reserves that AFG’s larger insurance subsidiaries are required to hold could reduce the amount of future dividends such subsidiaries are able to distribute to the holding company or require capital contributions. Any reduction in the RBC ratios of AFG’s insurance subsidiaries could also adversely affect their financial strength ratings as determined by rating agencies.

AFG could be adversely impacted by changes to the U.S. Federal income tax laws.
Changes in domestic or foreign tax laws or interpretations of such laws could increase AFG’s corporate taxes and reduce earnings. For example, on August 16, 2022, the U.S. government enacted the Inflation Reduction Act (“IRA”) which, among other changes, created a new corporate alternative minimum tax (“AMT”) based on adjusted financial statement income and imposes a 1% excise tax on corporate stock repurchases. These provisions became effective January 1, 2023. Any AMT incurred, under this provision, would be treated as a timing difference and generate a deferred tax asset that would be carried forward to offset regular tax liability in the future. Any excise tax incurred on corporate stock repurchases will generally be recognized as part of the cost basis of the stock acquired and not reported as part of income tax expense. As additional guidance is provided, AFG will continue to evaluate the impact that the new law will have on AFG’s financial results. Any changes in federal income tax laws, including changes to the IRA or the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, could adversely affect the federal income taxation of AFG’s ongoing operations and have a material adverse impact on its financial condition and results of operations.

New accounting rules or changes to existing accounting standards could adversely impact AFG’s reported results of operations.
As a U.S.-based SEC registrant, AFG prepares its financial statements in accordance with GAAP, as promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, subject to the accounting-related rules and interpretations of the SEC. New accounting rules or changes in accounting standards, particularly those that specifically apply to insurance company operations, may impact AFG’s reported financial results and could cause increased volatility in reported earnings, resulting in other adverse impacts on AFG’s ratings and cost of capital, and decrease the understandability of AFG’s financial results as well as the comparability of AFG’s reported results with other insurers.

GENERAL RISK FACTORS
Certain shareholders exercise substantial control over AFG’s affairs, which may impede a change of control transaction.
Carl H. Lindner III and S. Craig Lindner are each Co-Chief Executive Officers and Directors of AFG. Together, Carl H. Lindner III and S. Craig Lindner beneficially own 11.9% of AFG’s outstanding Common Stock as of February 1, 2024. Other members of the Lindner family own, directly or through trusts, a significant number of additional shares of AFG Common Stock. As a result, the Lindner family has the ability to exercise significant influence over AFG’s management and over matters requiring shareholder approval. Such influence could prevent an acquisition of AFG at a price and upon terms that other shareholders may find attractive.
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AFG’s business and operations may be negatively impacted by its and its business partners’ failure to recruit and retain key employees
The expertise and experience of AFG’s employees is a critical component of the company’s success. The continuation of such success depends, in large part, on AFG’s ability to attract and retain key individuals. There can be intense competition for qualified candidates in the activities that AFG conducts and in the markets that it serves, both within the insurance industry and from businesses outside the industry. This is particularly acute in certain specialized positions and areas of expertise, such as underwriting, data and analytics and AI-related and technology fields. Competition for employees may increase AFG’s expenses and may result in the company not being able to hire key employees or retain them. If AFG is unable to hire qualified candidates or retain its key personnel, AFG may be unable to execute its business strategies and may suffer material adverse consequences to its business, operations and financial condition.

The price of AFG Common Stock may fluctuate significantly, which may make it difficult for holders to resell common stock when they want or at a price they find attractive.
The price of AFG Common Stock, which is listed on the NYSE, constantly changes. AFG’s Common Stock price could materially fluctuate or decrease in response to a number of events or factors discussed in this section in addition to other events or factors including: quarterly variations in AFG’s operating results; operating and stock price performance of comparable companies; and negative publicity relating to AFG or its competitors. In addition, broad market and industry fluctuations may materially and adversely affect the trading price or volume of AFG Common Stock, regardless of AFG’s actual operating performance.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

Risk Management and Strategy
AFG recognizes the importance of assessing, identifying and managing material risks associated with cybersecurity threats as defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Like all businesses, AFG is a target for “cyberattacks,” “ransomware,” “phishing,” “hacking” and similar illegal or unauthorized intrusions into computer systems and networks. Such events can result in significant disruptions to information technology systems, the theft of information and financial assets and reputational harm. AFG could also incur significant expenses associated with investigating and remediating any such event.

As discussed below, AFG’s enterprise risk management (“ERM”) process considers cybersecurity threat risks alongside other company risks as part of the overall risk assessment process.

AFG has adopted the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) framework which provides a comprehensive method for developing a flexible, repeatable, performance-based and cost-effective approach to identifying and managing cybersecurity risks. The Company uses the framework to assess and improve its security posture.

AFG utilizes a variety of techniques to provide for the availability of critical data and systems, maintain regulatory compliance, manage its material risks from cybersecurity threats and to protect against, detect, and respond to cybersecurity incidents including, but not limited to, the following:
Conducts regular phishing testing of all employees and all members of the Board of Directors;
Utilizes full-desk encryption on all Company laptops and desktops;
Maintains a defense in depth security control strategy that is tested against high risk threats such as ransomware and other trending attack vectors;
Performs annual security awareness training and other routinely scheduled educational programming for employees;
Validates compliance with internal data security controls through the use of security monitoring utilities and internal and external audits;
Performs self-assessments measured against industry-leading cybersecurity frameworks for standards, guidelines and best practices, including the NIST cybersecurity framework;
Regularly scans external websites and internal applications;
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Engages an external third-party to conduct an annual penetration test consisting of advanced adversarial attacks against company systems and from which findings are investigated, ranked by risk level and tracked through appropriate mediation levels;
Utilizes user protections including stringent password requirements, two-factor authentication, and timed logoffs;
Conducts regular network and endpoint monitoring;
Performs regular tabletop exercises, utilizing a third-party data security firm as a facilitator, to simulate a response to a cybersecurity incident where the Company uses the findings to improve its processes and technologies; and
Purchases information security risk insurance from a third-party insurer that provides protection against the potential losses arising from a cybersecurity incident.

AFG continues to integrate assessing cybersecurity threat risks associated with its use of third-party service providers, generally at the initial engagement or renewal of the relationship. When conducting these assessments, AFG’s Enterprise Information Security Group (“EISG”) considers the risk profile of the vendor or supplier assesses security controls with the third parties and engages in contractual review to ensure appropriate security controls are in place.

AFG describes whether and how risks from identified cybersecurity threats are reasonably likely to materially affect the Company, including its business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition in its risk factor disclosures at Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which disclosures are incorporated by reference in this Item 1C.

Like others in the insurance industry, AFG experiences cyber-attacks and other attempts to gain unauthorized access to its systems on a regular basis and anticipates continuing to be subject to such attempts. Over the last three years, AFG has not experienced any material adverse events and has not paid any penalties or settlements related to an information security breach.

Governance
AFG’s Audit Committee is responsible for the oversight of risks from cybersecurity threats. At least annually, the full Board of Directors receives and at least quarterly, the Audit Committee receives an overview from the Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) or another senior member of the EISG of the Company’s cybersecurity threat risk management and strategy processes covering topics such as data security posture, results from third-party assessments, progress towards predetermined risk-mitigation-related goals, incident response planning and material cybersecurity threat risks or incidents and developments, as well as the steps management has taken to respond to such risks. In such sessions, materials including a cybersecurity scorecard and other information indicating current and emerging material cybersecurity threat risks and describing the Company’s ability to mitigate those risks are provided. Members of the Board also regularly receive educational materials and engage in ad hoc conversations with management on cybersecurity-related news events and discuss any updates to AFG’s cybersecurity risk management and strategy programs.

AFG has designed its ERM program to reinforce the way the Company operates its business and reflects its culture, organizational structure and risks. The AFG Enterprise Risk Committee (“ERC”), consisting of AFG’s Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Human Resources Officer, AFG’s Chief Financial Officer, AFG’s General Counsel and Great American Insurance Company’s President, oversees the ERM process including risk identification, risk impact and mitigation strategies. Each member of the ERC directly reports to AFG’s Co-CEOs. On a day-to-day basis, the Company’s ERM process is overseen by an AFG Enterprise Risk Officer, who regularly meets with senior leaders, including the CISO, representing key areas throughout the organization. Cybersecurity risk has been identified as a significant risk monitored under the ERM program. In addition, Ms. Murray, one of AFG’s independent Directors, completed the National Association of Corporate Directors’ Cyber-Risk Oversight Program and received the CERT Certificate in Cybersecurity Oversight issued by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University.

AFG has also adopted a Security Incident Response Plan (“SIRP”) that is designed to provide a management framework across Company functions for a coordinated assessment and response to potential security incidents. The AFG CISO leads and facilitates the SIRP team, which also includes AFG’s Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Human Resources Officer, AFG’s Chief Financial Officer, AFG’s Chief Information Officer, AFG’s General Counsel and Great American Insurance Group’s President and its General Counsel.

The SIRP provides for the interaction and coordination of executive, strategic and tactical teams, depending on the severity level of the incident, aimed at facilitating coordination across multiple units and departments of the Company. The incident response plan is reviewed, updated and tested at least annually. The SIRP covers the major phases of incident response process, including preparation; detection and analysis; containment and investigation; where required, notification to federal or state regulators; eradication and recovery; and incident closure and post-incident analysis.

AFG’s cybersecurity program is directed by its EISG leadership team that is headed by the AFG CISO and three divisional vice presidents that report to the CISO. This leadership group has collectively over 70 years of cybersecurity work
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experience, over 90 years of Information Technology (“IT”) experience and over 20 years of IT audit experience. This experience involved various roles related to managing information security; developing cybersecurity strategy; implementing and monitoring effective cybersecurity controls and penetration testing. These individuals hold many industry-standard certifications including but not limited to Certified Information Systems Security Professional, Information Systems Security Management Professional, G2700 certification, GIAC Security Leadership Certification, Certified in Risk and Information Systems Control®, Certified Information Security Manager, ITL certification and others. The CISO also holds a master’s degree in information security. All members of this leadership team are active in their local cybersecurity communities and national conferences. They speak at local universities, local conferences, national conferences, and have conducted training sessions at international conferences like Black Hat, an internationally recognized cybersecurity event series providing the most technical and relevant information security research. Their work has also been used in various best practice case studies by industry leading consulting and research firms.

Item 2. Properties

AFG and its insurance subsidiaries lease the majority of their office and storage facilities in numerous cities throughout the United States and internationally, including the Company’s headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. Subsidiaries of AFG own several other buildings in downtown Cincinnati. AFG and its affiliates occupy approximately half of the aggregate 640,000 square feet of commercial and office space in these buildings.

Property and casualty subsidiaries own and occupy approximately 90% of the 281,000 square feet of rentable office space on 17.5 acres of land in Richfield, Ohio and 100% of the 135,000 square feet of rentable office space on 1.3 acres of land in Lakeland, Florida.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

AFG and its subsidiaries are involved in litigation from time to time, generally arising in the ordinary course of business. This litigation may include, but is not limited to, general commercial disputes, lawsuits brought by policyholders, employment matters, reinsurance collection matters and actions challenging certain business practices of insurance subsidiaries. Except for the following, management believes that none of the litigation meets the threshold for disclosure under this Item.

AFG’s insurance company subsidiaries and its 100%-owned subsidiary, American Premier Underwriters, Inc. (including its subsidiaries, “American Premier”), are parties to litigation and receive claims alleging injuries and damages from asbestos, environmental and other substances and workplace hazards and have established loss accruals for such potential liabilities. None of such litigation or claims is individually material to AFG; however, the ultimate loss for these claims may vary materially from amounts currently recorded as the conditions surrounding resolution of these claims continue to change.

American Premier is a party or named as a potentially responsible party in a number of proceedings and claims by regulatory agencies and private parties under various environmental protection laws, including the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, seeking to impose responsibility on American Premier for hazardous waste or discharge remediation costs at certain railroad sites formerly owned by its predecessor, Penn Central Transportation Company (“PCTC”), and at certain other sites where hazardous waste or discharge allegedly generated by PCTC’s railroad operations and American Premier’s former manufacturing operations is present. It is difficult to estimate American Premier’s liability for remediation costs at these sites for a number of reasons, including the number and financial resources of other potentially responsible parties involved at a given site, the varying availability of evidence by which to allocate responsibility among such parties, the wide range of costs for possible remediation alternatives, changing technology and the period of time over which these matters develop. Nevertheless, American Premier believes that its accruals for potential environmental liabilities are adequate to cover the probable amount of such liabilities, based on American Premier’s estimates of remediation costs and related expenses and its estimates of the portions of such costs that will be borne by other parties. Such estimates are based on information currently available to American Premier and are subject to future change as additional information becomes available.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

AFG Common Stock is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol AFG. There were approximately 4,400 shareholders of record of AFG Common Stock at February 1, 2024.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
AFG repurchased shares of its Common Stock during 2023 as follows:
Total
Number
of Shares
Purchased
Average
Price Paid
Per Share
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
Maximum Number
of Shares
that May
Yet be Purchased
Under the Plans
or Programs (b)
First quarter199,762 $119.01 199,762 7,401,792 
Second quarter374,958 115.17 374,958 7,026,834 
Third quarter755,111 112.28 755,111 6,271,723 
Fourth quarter:
October361,946 110.49 361,946 5,909,777 
November170,100 109.37 170,100 5,739,677 
December10,667 115.25 10,667 5,729,010 
Total1,872,544 $112.98 (a)1,872,544 
(a)AFG declared special dividends totaling $5.50 per share of its Common Stock in 2023. Adjusted for the special dividends, the average price paid per share was $111.56 for 2023. In addition, at December 31, 2023, AFG has a $2 million payable related to the excise tax on share repurchases that was enacted January 1, 2023.
(b)Represents the remaining shares that may be repurchased until December 31, 2025 under the Plans authorized by AFG’s Board of Directors in October 2020 and May 2021.

AFG acquired 56,629 shares of its Common Stock (at an average of $131.98 per share) in the first nine months of 2023, 7,363 shares (at an average of $112.70 per share) in October 2023 and 68 shares (at $109.84 per share) in November 2023 in connection with its stock incentive plans.

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Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the performance of AFG Common Stock during the five year period from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023 with the performance of (i) the S&P 500 Composite Stock Index (“S&P 500 Index”) and (ii) the S&P 500 Property & Casualty Insurance Index. The graph assumes that an initial investment of $100 was made on December 31, 2018 and all dividends were reinvested. The stock price performance presented below is not intended to be indicative of future price performance.
1503
As of December 31,
201820192020202120222023
AFG$100 $127 $107 $207 $230 $213 
S&P 500 Index100 131 156 200 164 207 
S&P 500 P&C Index (b)100 126 134 157 187 207 
(a)Cumulative total shareholder return measures the performance of a company’s stock (or an index) over time and is calculated as the change in the stock price plus cumulative dividends (assuming dividends are reinvested) over a specific period of time divided by the stock price at the beginning of the time period.
(b)The S&P 500 Property & Casualty Insurance Index included the following companies at December 31, 2023 (weighted by market capitalization): The Allstate Corporation, Arch Capital Group Ltd., Chubb Limited, Cincinnati Financial Corporation, The Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc., Loews Corporation, The Progressive Corporation, The Travelers Companies, Inc. and W.R. Berkley Corporation.

Item 6. Reserved
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
INDEX TO MD&A
PagePage

OBJECTIVE
The objective of Management’s Discussion and Analysis is to provide a discussion and analysis of the financial statements and other statistical data that management believes will enhance the understanding of AFG’s financial condition, changes in financial condition and results of operations. The tables and narrative that follow are presented in a manner that is consistent with the information that AFG’s management uses to make operational decisions and allocate capital resources. They are provided to demonstrate the nature of the transactions and events that could impact AFG’s financial results. This discussion should be read in conjunction with the financial statements beginning on page F-1.

OVERVIEW

Financial Condition
AFG is organized as a holding company with almost all of its operations being conducted by subsidiaries. AFG, however, has continuing cash needs for administrative expenses, the payment of principal and interest on borrowings, shareholder dividends, and taxes. Therefore, certain analyses are most meaningfully presented on a parent only basis while others are best done on a total enterprise basis. In addition, because its businesses are financial in nature, AFG does not prepare its consolidated financial statements using a current-noncurrent format. Consequently, certain traditional ratios and financial analysis tests are not meaningful.

Results of Operations
Through the operations of its subsidiaries, AFG is engaged primarily in property and casualty insurance, focusing on specialized commercial products for businesses. AFG’s former annuity operations are reported as discontinued operations.

AFG reported net earnings of $263 million ($3.13 per share, diluted) for the fourth quarter of 2023 compared to $276 million ($3.24 per share, diluted) in the fourth quarter of 2022. The year-over-year decrease was due primarily to lower returns on AFG’s alternative investment portfolio (partnerships and similar investments and AFG-managed CLOs).

Full year 2023 net earnings were $852 million ($10.05 per share, diluted) compared to $898 million ($10.53 per share, diluted) in 2022. The year-over-year decrease was due primarily to lower returns on AFG’s alternative investment portfolio when compared to the strong performance of this portfolio in the prior year period and lower property and casualty underwriting profit. These items were partially offset by the impact of higher yields on fixed maturity investments, higher balances of invested assets and lower net realized losses on securities.

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Sale of the Annuity Business
In May 2021, AFG sold its annuity business, including Great American Life Insurance Company and its two insurance subsidiaries, Annuity Investors Life Insurance Company and Manhattan National Life Insurance Company to Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company (“MassMutual”). Total proceeds from the sale were $3.57 billion and AFG realized an after-tax gain on the sale of $656 million.

Outlook
AFG’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows are impacted by the economic, legal and regulatory environment. Economic inflation, social inflation, supply chain disruption, labor shortages, banking system instability and other economic conditions may impact premium levels, loss cost trends and investment returns. Management believes that AFG’s strong financial position and current liquidity and capital at its subsidiaries will give AFG the flexibility to continue to effectively address and respond to the ongoing uncertainties presented by the macro-economic environment and the conflicts in Ukraine and Israel. AFG’s insurance subsidiaries continue to have capital at or in excess of the levels required by ratings agencies in order to maintain their current ratings, and the parent company does not have any near-term debt maturities.

Management expects continued premium growth and strong underwriting results in the ongoing favorable property and casualty insurance market. In addition, the deployment of cash during the elevated interest rate environment (since early 2022) will continue to have a positive impact on investment income on fixed maturity investments in 2024.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Significant accounting policies are summarized in Note A — “Accounting Policies” to the financial statements. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that can have a significant effect on amounts reported in the financial statements. As more information becomes known, these estimates and assumptions change and, thus, impact amounts reported in the future. The areas where management believes the degree of judgment required to determine amounts recorded in the financial statements is most significant are as follows:
the valuation of investments, including the determination of impairment allowances,
the establishment of insurance reserves, especially asbestos and environmental-related reserves,
the recoverability of reinsurance, and
the establishment of asbestos and environmental liabilities of former railroad and manufacturing operations.

See “Liquidity and Capital Resources — Uncertainties” for a discussion of insurance reserves, recoverables from reinsurers and contingencies related to American Premier’s former operations and “Liquidity and Capital Resources — Investments” for a discussion of the allowance for credit losses (impairments) on investments.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Ratios
AFG’s debt to total capital ratio on a consolidated basis is shown below (dollars in millions). Management intends to maintain the ratio of debt to capital at or below 30% and intends to maintain the capital of its significant insurance subsidiaries at or above levels currently indicated by rating agencies as appropriate for the current ratings.
  
December 31,
20232022
Principal amount of long-term debt$1,498 $1,521 
Total capital6,060 6,099 
Ratio of debt to total capital:
Including subordinated debt24.7 %24.9 %
Excluding subordinated debt13.6 %13.9 %

The ratio of debt to total capital is a non-GAAP measure that management believes is useful for investors, analysts and ratings agencies to evaluate AFG’s financial strength and liquidity and to provide insight into how AFG finances its operations. In addition, maintaining a ratio of debt, excluding subordinated debt and debt secured by real estate (if any), to total capital of 35% or lower is a financial covenant in AFG’s bank credit facility. The ratio is calculated by dividing the principal amount of AFG’s long-term debt by its total capital, which includes long-term debt and shareholders’ equity (excluding unrealized gains (losses) related to fixed maturity investments).
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The NAIC’s model law for risk-based capital (“RBC”) applies to property and casualty companies. RBC formulas determine the amount of capital that an insurance company needs so that it has an acceptable expectation of not becoming financially impaired. At December 31, 2023, the capital ratios of all AFG insurance companies exceeded the RBC requirements.

Condensed Consolidated Cash Flows
AFG’s principal sources of cash include insurance premiums, income from its investment portfolio and proceeds from the maturities, redemptions and sales of investments. Insurance premiums in excess of acquisition expenses and operating costs are invested until they are needed to meet policyholder obligations or made available to the parent company through dividends to cover debt obligations and corporate expenses, and to provide returns to shareholders through share repurchases and dividends. Cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities as detailed in AFG’s Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows are shown below (in millions):
Year ended December 31,
202320222021
Net cash provided by operating activities$1,970 $1,153 $1,714 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities414 (1,051)(436)
Net cash used in financing activities(2,031)(1,361)(1,957)
Net change in cash and cash equivalents$353 $(1,259)$(679)

Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities   AFG’s property and casualty insurance operations typically produce positive net operating cash flows as premiums collected and investment income exceed policy acquisition costs, claims payments and operating expenses. AFG’s net cash provided by operating activities is impacted by the level and timing of property and casualty premiums, claim and expense payments and recoveries from reinsurers. AFG’s discontinued annuity operations, which were sold in May 2021, typically produced positive net operating cash flows as investment income exceeded acquisition costs and operating expenses. Interest credited on annuity policyholder funds is a non-cash increase in AFG’s annuity benefits accumulated liability and annuity premiums, benefits and withdrawals are considered financing activities due to the deposit-type nature of annuities. Cash flows provided by operating activities also include the activity of AFG’s managed investment entities (collateralized loan obligations (“CLO”)) other than those activities included in investing or financing activities. The changes in the assets and liabilities of the managed investment entities included in operating activities increased cash flows from operating activities by $305 million in 2023 and reduced cash flows from operating activities by $183 million in 2022 and $144 million in 2021, resulting in a $488 million increase in cash flows from operating activities in 2023 compared to 2022 and a $39 million decrease in cash flows from operating activities in 2022 compared to 2021. As discussed in Note A — “Accounting Policies — Managed Investment Entities” to the financial statements, AFG has no right to use the CLO assets and no obligation to pay the CLO liabilities and such assets and liabilities are shown separately in AFG’s Balance Sheet. Excluding the impact of the managed investment entities, net cash provided by operating activities was $1.67 billion, $1.34 billion and $1.86 billion in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Investing Activities   AFG’s investing activities consist primarily of the investment of funds provided by its property and casualty businesses and, prior to the May 2021 sale, its discontinued annuity operations. Investing activities also include the purchase and disposal of managed investment entity investments, which are presented separately in AFG’s Balance Sheet. Net investment activity in the managed investment entities was a $762 million source of cash in 2023 compared to a $180 million use of cash in 2022, resulting in a $942 million increase in net cash provided by investing activities in 2023 compared to 2022. See Note A — “Accounting Policies — Managed Investment Entities” and Note H — “Managed Investment Entities” to the financial statements. Investing activities for 2023 include the July 2023 acquisition of Crop Risk Services (“CRS”) for $234 million in cash. Excluding the acquisition of CRS and the activity of the managed investment entities, investing activities were a $114 million use of cash in 2023 compared to $871 million in 2022, reflecting the opportunistic investment of cash on hand in the property and casualty operations during the rising interest rate environment in 2022.

Net cash used in investing activities was $1.05 billion in 2022 compared to $436 million in 2021, an increase of $615 million. Cash proceeds from the sale of the annuity operations in excess of cash and cash equivalents held in the annuity subsidiaries that were sold was a $1.51 billion source of cash provided by investing activities in 2021. Investing activities for 2021 also include the December 2021 acquisition of Verikai for $120 million in cash. Net investment activity in the managed investment entities was a $180 million use of cash in 2022 compared to $43 million in 2021, resulting in a $137 million increase in net cash used in investing activities in 2022 compared to 2021. Excluding the impact of the May 2021 sale of the annuity business ($1.51 billion source of cash), the acquisition of Verikai and the activity of the managed
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investment entities, net cash used in investing activities was $871 million in 2022 compared to $1.78 billion in 2021, a decrease of $912 million as the opportunistic investment of cash on hand in the property and casualty operations during the rising interest rate environment in 2022 was more than offset by the absence of investing activities from the disposed annuity operations.

Net Cash Used In Financing Activities   AFG’s financing activities consist primarily of issuances and retirements of long-term debt, issuances and repurchases of common stock, dividend payments and, prior to the sale of the annuity business, transactions with annuity policyholders. Net cash used in financing activities was $2.03 billion in 2023 compared to $1.36 billion in 2022, an increase of $670 million. AFG paid cash dividends totaling $684 million in 2023 compared to $1.21 billion in 2022, resulting in a $529 million decrease in net cash used in financing activities in 2023 compared to 2022. Debt retirements were a $21 million use of cash in 2023 compared to $477 million in 2022, a decrease of $456 million. In 2023, AFG repurchased $213 million of its Common Stock compared to $11 million in 2022, resulting in a $202 million increase in net cash used in financing activities in 2023 compared to 2022. Financing activities also include issuances and retirements of managed investment entity liabilities, which are nonrecourse to AFG and presented separately in AFG’s Balance Sheet. Retirements of managed investment entity liabilities exceeded issuances by $1.13 billion in 2023 compared to issuances exceeding retirements by $324 million in 2022, resulting in a $1.45 billion increase in net cash used in financing activities in 2023 compared to 2022. See Note A — “Accounting Policies — Managed Investment Entities” and Note H — “Managed Investment Entities” to the financial statements.

Net cash used in financing activities was $1.36 billion in 2022 compared to $1.96 billion in 2021, a decrease in net cash used in financing activities of $596 million. Debt retirements were a $477 million use of cash in 2022 compared to no debt retirements in 2021. In 2022, AFG repurchased $11 million of its Common Stock compared to $319 million in 2021, resulting in a $308 million decrease in net cash used in financing activities in 2022 compared to 2021. AFG paid cash dividends totaling $1.21 billion in 2022 compared to $2.37 billion in 2021, resulting in a net $1.16 billion decrease in net cash used in financing activities in 2022 compared to 2021. Net annuity receipts exceeded annuity surrenders, benefits, withdrawals and transfers by $477 million in 2021 through the May 31, 2021 effective date of the sale, resulting in a $477 million decrease in net cash used in financing activities in 2022 compared to 2021. Issuances of managed investment entity liabilities exceeded retirements by $324 million in 2022 compared to $193 million in 2021, resulting in a $131 million increase in net cash provided by financing activities in 2022 compared to 2021.

Parent and Subsidiary Liquidity

Parent Holding Company Liquidity   Management believes AFG has sufficient resources to meet its liquidity requirements. If funds generated from operations, including dividends, tax payments and borrowings from subsidiaries, are insufficient to meet fixed charges in any period, AFG would be required to utilize parent company cash and investments or to generate cash through borrowings, sales of other assets, or similar transactions.

AFG’s capital and liquidity was significantly enhanced as a result of the 2021 sale of its annuity business to MassMutual for proceeds of $3.57 billion. By the end of the second quarter of 2022, AFG had deployed the proceeds from this sale primarily through special cash dividends, share repurchases, debt retirements and the purchase of Verikai. AFG’s ongoing operations continue to generate significant excess capital for future returns of capital to shareholders in the form of regular and special cash dividends and through opportunistic share repurchases or to be deployed into its property and casualty businesses as management identifies the potential for profitable organic growth, and opportunities to expand through acquisitions of established businesses or start-ups that meet target return thresholds.

During 2023, AFG repurchased 1,872,544 shares of its Common Stock for $213 million and paid special cash dividends totaling $466 million ($4.00 per share in February and $1.50 per share in November). In addition, on February 6, 2024, AFG declared a special cash dividend of $2.50 per share (aggregate of approximately $210 million) payable on February 28, 2024.

AFG may, at any time and from time to time, seek to retire or purchase its outstanding debt through cash purchases or exchanges for equity or debt, in open-market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or otherwise. Such repurchases or exchanges, if any, will be upon such terms and at such prices as management may determine, and will depend on prevailing market conditions, AFG’s liquidity requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors. During 2023, AFG repurchased $23 million principal amount of its senior notes for $21 million cash.

During 2022, AFG repurchased 89,368 shares of its Common Stock for $11 million and paid special cash dividends totaling $1.02 billion ($2.00 per share in March, $8.00 per share in May and $2.00 per share in November). In 2022, AFG repurchased $472 million principal amount of its senior notes for $477 million cash.

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During 2021, AFG repurchased 2,777,684 shares of its Common Stock for $319 million and paid special cash dividends totaling $2.21 billion ($14.00 per share in June, $2.00 per share in August, $4.00 per share in October, $4.00 per share in November and $2.00 per share in December).

In December 2021, AFG acquired Verikai, Inc., a machine learning and artificial intelligence company that utilizes a predictive risk tool to assess insurance risk, for $120 million using cash on hand at the parent.

All debentures and notes issued by AFG are rated investment grade by two nationally recognized rating agencies. AFG maintains a shelf registration statement under which it can offer additional equity or debt securities. The shelf registration provides AFG with flexibility to access the capital markets from time to time as market and other conditions permit.

At December 31, 2023, AFG (parent) held approximately $485 million in cash and investments. Management believes that AFG’s cash balances are held at stable banking institutions, although the amounts of many of these deposits are in excess of federally insured balances. In June 2023, AFG replaced its existing credit facility with a new five-year, $450 million revolving credit facility, which expires in June 2028. Amounts borrowed under this agreement bear interest at rates ranging from 1.00% to 1.75% (based on AFG’s credit rating, currently 1.25%) over a SOFR-based floating rate. There were no borrowings under AFG’s credit facilities, or under any other parent company short-term borrowing arrangements, during 2023 or 2022.

Under a tax allocation agreement with AFG, all 80% (or more) owned U.S. subsidiaries generally pay taxes to (or recover taxes from) AFG based on each subsidiary’s contribution to amounts due under AFG’s consolidated tax return.

Subsidiary Liquidity   The liquidity requirements of AFG’s insurance subsidiaries relate primarily to the policyholder claims and underwriting expenses and payments of dividends and taxes to AFG. Historically, cash flows from premiums and investment income have generally provided more than sufficient funds to meet these requirements. Funds received in excess of cash requirements are generally invested in marketable securities. In addition, the insurance subsidiaries generally hold a significant amount of highly liquid, short duration investments.

For statutory accounting purposes, equity securities of non-affiliates are generally carried at fair value. At December 31, 2023, AFG’s insurance companies owned publicly traded equity securities with a fair value of $1.02 billion. Decreases in market prices could adversely affect the insurance group’s capital, potentially impacting the amount of dividends available or necessitating a capital contribution. Conversely, increases in market prices could have a favorable impact on the group’s dividend-paying capability.

Property and casualty reserves for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses were $13.09 billion at December 31, 2023 and include case reserves and claims incurred but not reported (“IBNR”). The ultimate amount to be paid to settle reserves is an estimate, subject to significant uncertainty. Actual payments to settle claims cannot be determined until a settlement is reached with the claimant. Final claim settlements may vary significantly from estimated amounts. See “Uncertainties — Property and Casualty Insurance Reserves” below. The timing of future payments for the next twelve months and beyond could vary materially from historical payment patterns due to, among other things, changes in claim reporting and payment patterns and large unanticipated settlements.

AFG believes its insurance subsidiaries maintain sufficient liquidity to pay claims and underwriting expenses. In addition, these subsidiaries have sufficient capital to meet commitments in the event of unforeseen events such as reserve deficiencies, inadequate premium rates or reinsurer insolvencies. Even in the current uncertain economic environment, management believes that the capital levels in AFG’s insurance subsidiaries are adequate to maintain its business and rating agency ratings. Nonetheless, changes in statutory accounting rules, significant declines in the fair value of the insurance subsidiaries’ investment portfolios or significant ratings downgrades on these investments, could create a need for additional capital.

Condensed Parent Only Cash Flows
AFG’s parent holding company only condensed cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities are shown below (in millions):
Year ended December 31,
202320222021
Net cash provided by operating activities$719 $327 $833 
Net cash provided by investing activities225 992 2,167 
Net cash used in financing activities(901)(1,683)(2,626)
Net change in cash and cash equivalents$43 $(364)$374 

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Parent Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities   Parent holding company cash flows from operating activities consist primarily of dividends and tax payments received from AFG’s insurance subsidiaries, reduced by tax payments to the IRS and holding company interest and other expenses. Parent holding company net cash provided by operating activities was $719 million in 2023 compared to $327 million in 2022 and $833 million in 2021. The $392 million increase in net cash provided by operating activities in 2023 as compared to 2022 and the $506 million decrease in net cash provided by operating activities in 2022 as compared to 2021 were due primarily to higher cash dividends received from subsidiaries in 2023 and 2021.

Parent Net Cash Provided by Investing Activities   Parent holding company investing activities consist of capital contributions to and returns of capital from subsidiaries and parent company investment activity. Parent holding company net cash provided by investing activities was $225 million in 2023, $992 million in 2022 and $2.17 billion in 2021. The $225 million in net cash provided by investing activities in 2023 is lower than the $992 million in net cash provided by investing activities in 2022 due to the increase in capital contributions to subsidiaries to fund the purchase of CRS in July 2023 and lower balances of invested assets. The $992 million in net cash provided by investing activities in 2022 is substantially lower than the $2.17 billion in net cash provided by investing activities in 2021 due to proceeds of $3.57 billion related to the May 2021 sale of the annuity business partially offset by net purchases of fixed maturity investments of $1.19 billion in 2021 and the $120 million purchase of Verikai in December 2021.

Parent Net Cash Used in Financing Activities   Parent company financing activities consist primarily of the issuance and retirement of long-term debt, repurchases of AFG Common Stock, dividends to shareholders, and, to a lesser extent, proceeds from employee stock option exercises. Significant long-term debt and common stock transactions are discussed above under “Parent Holding Company Liquidity.” Parent holding company net cash used in financing activities was $901 million in 2023 compared to $1.68 billion in 2022 and $2.63 billion in 2021. The $782 million decrease in net cash used in financing activities in 2023 as compared to 2022 reflects lower dividends paid to shareholders (due primarily to special dividends of $5.50 per share in 2023 compared to special dividends of $12.00 per share in 2022) and lower net retirements of long-term debt in 2023 compared to 2022. The $943 million decrease in net cash used in financing activities in 2022 as compared to 2021 reflects lower dividends paid to shareholders (due primarily to special dividends of $12.00 per share in 2022 compared to special dividends of $26.00 per share in 2021), partially offset by the impact of net retirements of long-term debt in 2022.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
See Note P — “Additional Information — Financial Instruments — Unfunded Commitments” to the financial statements.

Investments
AFG attempts to optimize investment income while building the value of its portfolio, placing emphasis upon total long-term performance.

AFG’s investment portfolio at December 31, 2023, contained $10.38 billion in fixed maturity securities classified as available for sale and carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses included in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and $57 million in fixed maturities classified as trading with holding gains and losses included in net investment income. In addition, AFG’s investment portfolio includes $571 million in equity securities carried at fair value with holding gains and losses included in realized gains (losses) on securities and $447 million in equity securities carried at fair value with holding gains and losses included in net investment income.

Unrealized gains and losses on AFG’s fixed maturity securities are included in shareholders’ equity after adjustments for deferred income taxes.

Fixed income investment funds are generally invested in securities with intermediate-term maturities with an objective of optimizing total return while allowing flexibility to react to changes in market conditions. At December 31, 2023, the average life of AFG’s fixed maturities was about 4.3 years.

Fair values for AFG’s portfolio are determined by AFG’s internal investment professionals using data from nationally recognized pricing services, non-binding broker quotes and other market information. Fair values of equity securities are generally based on published closing prices. For AFG’s fixed maturity portfolio, approximately 89% was priced using pricing services at December 31, 2023 and 5% was priced using non-binding broker quotes. When prices obtained for the same security vary, AFG’s internal investment professionals select the price they believe is most indicative of an exit price.

The pricing services use a variety of observable inputs to estimate fair value of fixed maturities that do not trade on a daily basis. Based upon information provided by the pricing services, these inputs include, but are not limited to, recent reported trades, benchmark yields, issuer spreads, bids or offers, reference data, and measures of volatility. Included in
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the pricing of mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”) are estimates of the rate of future prepayments and defaults of principal over the remaining life of the underlying collateral. Due to the lack of transparency in the process that brokers use to develop prices, valuations that are based on brokers’ prices are classified as Level 3 in the GAAP hierarchy unless the price can be corroborated, for example, by comparison to similar securities priced using observable inputs.

Valuation techniques utilized by pricing services and prices obtained from external sources are reviewed by AFG’s internal investment professionals who are familiar with the securities being priced and the markets in which they trade to ensure the fair value determination is representative of an exit price. To validate the appropriateness of the prices obtained, these investment managers consider widely published indices (as benchmarks), recent trades, changes in interest rates, general economic conditions and the credit quality of the specific issuers. In addition, AFG communicates directly with pricing services regarding the methods and assumptions used in pricing, including verifying, on a test basis, the inputs used by the services to value specific securities.

In general, the fair value of AFG’s fixed maturity investments is inversely correlated to changes in interest rates. The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of such fair values to reasonably likely changes in interest rates by illustrating the estimated effect on AFG’s fixed maturity portfolio that an immediate increase of 100 basis points in the interest rate yield curve would have had at December 31, 2023 (dollars in millions). Effects of increases or decreases from the 100 basis points illustrated would be approximately proportional.

Fair value of fixed maturity portfolio$10,434 
Percentage impact on fair value of 100 bps increase in interest rates(3.0 %)
Pretax impact on fair value of fixed maturity portfolio$(313)

Approximately 94% of the fixed maturities held by AFG at December 31, 2023, were rated “investment grade” (credit rating of AAA to BBB) by nationally recognized rating agencies, 3% were rated “non-investment grade” and 3% were not rated. Investment grade securities generally bear lower yields and lower degrees of risk than those that are unrated and non-investment grade. Management believes that the high-quality investment portfolio should generate a stable and predictable investment return.

Municipal bonds represented approximately 9% of AFG’s fixed maturity portfolio at December 31, 2023. AFG’s municipal bond portfolio is high quality, with over 99% of the securities rated investment grade at that date. The portfolio is well diversified across the states of issuance and individual issuers. At December 31, 2023, approximately 94% of the municipal bond portfolio was held in revenue bonds, with the remaining 6% held in general obligation bonds.

AFG has less than $100 million of direct exposure to office commercial real estate through property ownership, mortgages or equity method investments. AFG’s fixed maturity portfolio includes securities (the majority of which are AAA-rated) with a carrying value of approximately $600 million that have minimal exposure to office commercial real estate.
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Summarized information for the unrealized gains and losses recorded in AFG’s Balance Sheet at December 31, 2023, is shown in the following table (dollars in millions). Approximately $252 million of available for sale fixed maturity securities had no unrealized gains or losses at December 31, 2023.
Securities
With
Unrealized
Gains
Securities
With
Unrealized
Losses
Available for Sale Fixed Maturities
Fair value of securities$3,698 $6,427 
Amortized cost of securities, net of allowance for expected credit losses$3,591 $6,897 
Gross unrealized gain (loss)$107 $(470)
Fair value as % of amortized cost103 %93 %
Number of security positions704 1,433 
Number individually exceeding $2 million gain or loss49 
Concentration of gains (losses) by type or industry (exceeding 5% of unrealized):
Mortgage-backed securities$26 $(156)
Banking12 (23)
Other asset-backed securities10 (120)
Collateralized loan obligations(28)
States and municipalities(38)
Asset managers(28)
Percentage rated investment grade96 %95 %

The table below sets forth the scheduled maturities of AFG’s available for sale fixed maturity securities at December 31, 2023, based on their fair values. Securities with sinking funds are reported at average maturity. Actual maturities may differ from contractual maturities because certain securities may be called or prepaid by the issuers.
Securities
With
Unrealized
Gains
Securities
With
Unrealized
Losses
Maturity
One year or less%%
After one year through five years22 %27 %
After five years through ten years21 %%
After ten years%%
50 %41 %
Collateralized loan obligations and other asset-backed securities (average life of approximately 3 years)
37 %41 %
Mortgage-backed securities (average life of approximately 6.5 years)
13 %18 %
100 %100 %

The table below (dollars in millions) summarizes the unrealized gains and losses on fixed maturity securities by dollar amount:
Aggregate
Fair
Value
Aggregate
Unrealized
Gain (Loss)
Fair
Value as
% of Cost
Fixed Maturities at December 31, 2023
Securities with unrealized gains:
Exceeding $500,000 (43 securities)
$567 $35 107 %
$500,000 or less (661 securities)
3,131 72 102 %
$3,698 $107 103 %
Securities with unrealized losses:
Exceeding $500,000 (239 securities)
$2,755 $(343)89 %
$500,000 or less (1,194 securities)
3,672 (127)97 %
$6,427 $(470)