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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
xANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
¨TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____ to ____
Commission file number 001-38477
BIGLARI HOLDINGS INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Indiana82-3784946
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
19100 Ridgewood Parkway, Suite 1200

San Antonio,
 Texas78259
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(210) 344-3400
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolsName of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, no par valueBH.ANew York Stock Exchange
Class B Common Stock, no par valueBHNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨  No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
 ¨
Accelerated filer
 x
Non-accelerated filer
 ¨
Smaller reporting company
 x
Emerging growth company
 ¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b). ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023, was approximately $201,503,586.
.
Number of shares of common stock outstanding as of February 20, 2024:
Class A common stock –206,864 
Class B common stock –2,068,640 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



Table of Contents
Page No.



Table of Contents

Part I
Item 1.    Business
Biglari Holdings Inc. is a holding company owning subsidiaries engaged in a number of diverse business activities, including property and casualty insurance, licensing and media, restaurants, and oil and gas. The Company’s largest operating subsidiaries are involved in the franchising and operating of restaurants. Biglari Holdings is founded and led by Sardar Biglari, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Company.
Biglari Holdings’ management system combines decentralized operations with centralized financial decision-making. Operating decisions for the various business units are made by their respective managers. All major investment and capital allocation decisions are made for the Company and its subsidiaries by Mr. Biglari.
As of December 31, 2023, Mr. Biglari beneficially owns shares of the Company that represent approximately 66.8% of the economic interest and approximately 71.0% of the voting interest.
Restaurant Operations
The Company’s restaurant operations are conducted through two subsidiaries: Steak n Shake Inc. (“Steak n Shake”) and Western Sizzlin Corporation (“Western Sizzlin”) for a combined 492 units. As of December 31, 2023, Steak n Shake had 148 company-operated restaurants, 181 franchise partner units, and 128 traditional franchise units. Western Sizzlin had 3 company-operated restaurants and 32 franchise units.
Founded in 1934 in Normal, Illinois, on Route 66, Steak n Shake is a classic American brand serving premium burgers and milkshakes. Steak n Shake is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Founded in 1962 in Augusta, Georgia, Western Sizzlin is a steak and buffet concept serving signature steak dishes as well as other classic American menu items. Western Sizzlin also operates two other concepts: Great American Steak & Buffet, and Wood Grill Buffet. Western Sizzlin is headquartered in Roanoke, Virginia.
Company-Operated Restaurants
A typical company-operated restaurant management team consists of a general manager, a restaurant manager, and other managers, depending on the sales volume of the restaurant. Each restaurant’s general manager has primary responsibility for the day-to-day operations of his or her unit. Restaurant operations obtain food products and supplies from independent national distributors. Purchases are centrally negotiated to ensure uniformity in product quality.

Franchise Partner Restaurants
Steak n Shake offers a franchise partner program to transition company-operated restaurants to franchise partnerships. The franchise agreement stipulates that the franchisee make an upfront investment totaling ten thousand dollars. Steak n Shake, as the franchisor, assesses a fee of up to 15% of sales as well as 50% of profits. Potential franchise partners are screened based on entrepreneurial attitude and ability, but they become franchise partners based on achievement. Each must meet the gold standard in service. Franchise partners are single-unit owner-operators.

Traditional Franchise Restaurants
Restaurant operations’ traditional franchising program extends the brands to areas in which there are no current development plans for company stores. The expansion plans include seeking qualified new franchisees and expanding relationships with current franchisees. Restaurant operations typically seek franchisees with both the financial resources necessary to fund successful development and significant experience in the restaurant/retail business. Both restaurant chains assist franchisees with the development and ongoing operation of their restaurants. In addition, personnel assist franchisees with site selection, approve restaurant sites, and provide prototype plans, construction support, and specifications. Restaurant operations staff provides both on-site and off-site instruction to franchise restaurant management and associates.
International
We have a corporate office in Monaco and an international organization with personnel in various functions to support our international business. Similar to our traditional domestic franchise agreements, a typical international franchise development agreement includes development and franchise fees in addition to subsequent royalty fees based on the gross sales of each restaurant.

1

Table of Contents

Competition
The restaurant business is one of the most intensely competitive industries. As there are virtually no barriers to entry into the restaurant business, competitors may include national, regional, and local establishments. Restaurant businesses compete on the basis of price, convenience, service, experience, menu variety, and product quality. The restaurant business is often affected by changes in consumer tastes and by national, regional, and local economic conditions. The performance of individual restaurants may be impacted by factors such as traffic patterns, demographic trends, weather conditions, and competing restaurants.
Government Regulations
The Company is subject to various global, federal, state, and local laws affecting its restaurant operations. Each of the restaurants must comply with licensing and regulation by a number of governmental authorities, i.e., health, sanitation, safety, and fire agencies in the jurisdiction in which the restaurant is located.

Various federal and state labor laws govern our relationship with our employees, e.g., minimum wage, overtime pay, unemployment tax, health insurance, and workers’ compensation. Federal, state, and local government agencies have established regulations requiring that we disclose nutritional information.
Trademark and Licenses
The name and reputation of Steak n Shake is a material asset, and management protects it and other service marks through appropriate registrations.
Insurance Business
Biglari Holdings’ insurance activities are conducted through two insurance entities, First Guard Insurance Company and its affiliated agency, 1st Guard Corporation (collectively “First Guard”), and Southern Pioneer Property & Casualty Insurance Company and its affiliated agency, Southern Pioneer Insurance Agency, Inc. (collectively “Southern Pioneer”). Our insurance businesses provide insurance of property and casualty.

The insurance business is stringently regulated by state insurance departments. Insurers based in the United States are subject to regulation by their states of domicile and by those states in which they are licensed to write policies on an admitted basis. First Guard and Southern Pioneer operate under licenses issued by various state insurance authorities. The primary focus of regulation is to ensure that insurers are financially solvent and that policyholder interests are otherwise protected. States establish minimum capital levels for insurance companies and establish guidelines for permissible business and investment activities. States have the authority to suspend or revoke a company’s authority to do business as conditions warrant. States regulate the payment of dividends by insurance companies to their shareholders and other transactions with affiliates. Dividends, capital distributions, and other transactions of extraordinary amounts are subject to prior regulatory approval. Insurers may market, sell, and service insurance policies in the states where they are licensed. These insurers are referred to as admitted insurers. Admitted insurers are generally required to obtain regulatory approval of their policy forms and premium rates. Except for regulatory considerations, there are virtually no barriers to entry into the insurance industry.

First Guard is a direct underwriter of commercial truck insurance, primarily selling physical damage and nontrucking liability insurance to truckers. The commercial truck insurance business is highly competitive in the areas of price and service. Vigorous competition is provided by large, well-capitalized companies and by small regional insurers. First Guard’s insurance products are marketed primarily through direct response methods via the Internet or by telephone. First Guard’s cost-efficient direct response marketing methods enable it to be a low-cost insurer. First Guard uses its own claim staff to manage claims. Seasonal variations in First Guard’s insurance business are not significant. However, extraordinary weather conditions or other factors may have a significant effect upon the frequency or severity of claims. First Guard is headquartered in Venice, Florida.

Southern Pioneer underwrites garage liability and commercial property as well as homeowners and dwelling fire insurance on an admitted basis. Insurance coverages are offered nationwide, primarily through insurance agents. Southern Pioneer competes with large companies and local insurers. Southern Pioneer is headquartered in Jonesboro, Arkansas.

Biglari Holdings’ insurance operations may be affected by extraordinary weather conditions or other factors, any of which may have a significant effect upon the frequency or severity of claims.
Oil and Gas Business
The Company's oil and gas operations are conducted through two entities, Southern Oil Company (“Southern Oil”) and Abraxas Petroleum Corporation (“Abraxas Petroleum”). Southern Oil primarily operates oil and natural gas properties offshore in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Abraxas Petroleum operates oil and natural gas wells in the Permian Basin.


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On September 14, 2022, the Company purchased Preferred Shares of Abraxas Petroleum for $80.0 million. On October 26, 2022, the Company exchanged the Preferred Shares for 90% of the outstanding common stock of Abraxas Petroleum. On June 14, 2023, the remaining 10% of the outstanding common stock of Abraxas Petroleum was acquired for $5.4 million.

The oil and gas industry is fundamentally a commodity business. Southern Oil’s and Abraxas Petroleum’s operations and earnings, therefore, may be significantly affected by changes in oil and natural gas prices. Biglari Holdings’ oil and gas operations compete with fully integrated, major global petroleum companies, as well as independent and national petroleum companies. In addition, our companies are subject to a variety of risks inherent in the oil and gas business, including a wide range of local, state, and federal regulations.

Southern Oil is headquartered in Madisonville, Louisiana, and Abraxas Petroleum is headquartered in San Antonio, Texas.
Brand Licensing Business
Maxim’s business lies principally in brand licensing. Maxim is headquartered in New York, New York.
Maxim competes for licensing business with other companies. The nature of the licensing business is predicated on projects that materialize with irregularity. In addition, publishing is a highly competitive business.
Maxim products are marketed under various registered brand names, including, but not limited to, “MAXIM®” and “Maxim®.”
Investments
The Company and its subsidiaries have invested in The Lion Fund, L.P., and The Lion Fund II, L.P. (collectively, “the investment partnerships”). The investment partnerships operate as private investment funds. As of December 31, 2023, the fair value of the investment partnerships was $472.8 million. In addition, the Company held marketable securities (outside the investment partnerships) of $91.9 million at fair value.
Employees
As of December 31, 2023, the Company employed 2,466 persons. When hiring personnel, we do not consider circumstances of birth, race, gender, ethnicity, religion, or any other factor unrelated to talent. The factor of prime importance to us, talent, is invariably found across a wide spectrum of humanity. We seek to associate with people of high character and competence.
Additional information with respect to Biglari Holdings’ businesses
Information related to our reportable segments may be found in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Biglari Holdings maintains a website (biglariholdings.com) where its annual reports, press releases, interim shareholder reports, and links to its subsidiaries’ websites can be found. Biglari Holdings’ periodic reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), which include Form 10-K, Form 10-Q, Form 8-K, and amendments thereto, may be accessed by the public free of charge from the SEC and through Biglari Holdings’ website. In addition, corporate governance documents such as Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Conduct, Compensation Committee Charter, and Audit Committee Charter are posted on the Company’s website. The documents are also available without charge upon written request. The Company’s website and the information contained therein or connected thereto are not intended to be incorporated into this report on Form 10-K.
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Item 1A.     Risk Factors
Biglari Holdings and its subsidiaries (referred to herein as “we,” “us,” “our,” or similar expressions) are subject to certain risks and uncertainties in their business operations, which are described below. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known or that are currently deemed immaterial may also impair our business operations.
Risks relating to Biglari Holdings
We are dependent on our Chairman and CEO.
Our success depends on the services of Sardar Biglari, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. All major investment and capital allocation decisions are made for the Company and its subsidiaries by Mr. Biglari. If for any reason the services of Mr. Biglari were to become unavailable, a material adverse effect on our business could occur.
Sardar Biglari, Chairman and CEO, beneficially owns over 50% of our outstanding shares of common stock, enabling Mr. Biglari to exert control over matters requiring shareholder approval.
Mr. Biglari has the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our shareholders for approval, including the election or removal of directors, the amendment of our articles of incorporation or bylaws, and other significant transactions. In addition, Mr. Biglari has the ability to control the management and affairs of the Company. This control position may conflict with the interests of some or all of the Company’s passive shareholders, and reduce the possibility of a merger proposal, tender offer, or proxy contest for the removal of directors.
We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the New York Stock Exchange rules and thus can rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.
Because Mr. Biglari beneficially owns more than 50% of the Company’s outstanding voting stock, we are considered a “controlled company” pursuant to New York Stock Exchange rules. As a result, we are not required to comply with certain director independence and board committee requirements. The Company does not have a governance and nominating committee.
Biglari Holdings’ access to capital is subject to restrictions that may adversely affect its ability to satisfy its cash requirements.
We are a holding company and are largely dependent upon dividends and other sources of funds from our subsidiaries in order to meet our needs. The ability of our insurance subsidiaries to pay dividends to Biglari Holdings is regulated by state insurance laws, which limit the amount of, and in certain circumstances may prohibit the payment of, cash dividends. Furthermore, as a result of our substantial investments in The Lion Fund, L.P., and The Lion Fund II, L.P., investment partnerships controlled by Mr. Biglari, our access to capital is restricted by the terms of their respective partnership agreements. There is also a high likelihood that we will make additional investments in these investment partnerships.
Competition and technology may result in lower earnings.
Our operating businesses face intense competition within their markets, and many factors, including technological changes, may erode or prevent the strengthening of their competitive advantages. Accordingly, our future operating results will depend to some degree on our operating units successfully enhancing their competitive advantages. If our operating businesses are unsuccessful in these efforts, our periodic operating results may decline in the future. We also highlight certain competitive risks in the sections below.
Deterioration of general economic conditions may significantly reduce our operating earnings.
Our operating businesses are subject to normal economic cycles, which affect the general economy or the specific industries in which they operate. Significant deterioration of economic conditions over a prolonged period could produce a material adverse effect on one or more of our significant operations.

Epidemics, pandemics, or other outbreaks could hurt our operating businesses and investments.
Epidemics, pandemics, or outbreaks may adversely affect our operations and investments. This is or may be due to closures or restrictions requested or mandated by governmental authorities, disruption to supply chains and workforce, reduction of demand for our products and services, credit losses when customers and other counterparties fail to satisfy their obligations to us, and volatility in global equity securities markets, among other factors.
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Potential changes in laws or regulations may have a negative impact on our Class A common stock and Class B common stock.
In prior years, bills have been introduced in Congress that, if enacted, would have prohibited the listing of common stock on a national securities exchange if such common stock were part of a class of securities that has no voting rights or carries disproportionate voting rights. Although these bills have not been acted upon by Congress, there can be no assurance that such a bill (or a modified version thereof) will not be introduced in Congress in the future. Legislation or other regulatory developments could make the shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock ineligible for trading on the NYSE or other national securities exchanges.
Litigation could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, cash flows, and results of operations.
We are or may be from time to time a party to various legal actions, investigations, and other proceedings brought by employees, consumers, policyholders, suppliers, shareholders, government agencies, or other third parties in connection with matters pertaining to our business, including those related to our investment activities. The outcome of such matters is often difficult to assess or quantify, and the cost to defend future proceedings may be significant. Even if a claim is unsuccessful or is not fully pursued, the negative publicity surrounding any allegation regarding the Company, our business, or our products could adversely affect our reputation. While we believe that the ultimate outcome of routine legal proceedings, individually and in the aggregate, will not have a material impact on our financial position, we cannot assure that an adverse outcome on, or reputational damage from, any of these matters would not, in fact, materially impact our business and results of operations for the period after these matters are completed or otherwise resolved.
Risks Relating to Our Restaurant Operations
Our restaurant operations face intense competition from a wide range of industry participants.
The restaurant business is one of the most intensely competitive industries. As there are virtually no barriers to entry into the restaurant business, competitors may include national, regional, and local establishments. Restaurant businesses compete on the basis of price, convenience, service, experience, menu variety, and product quality. The restaurant business is often affected by changes in consumer tastes and by national, regional, and local economic conditions. The performance of individual restaurants may be impacted by factors such as traffic patterns, demographic trends, weather conditions, and competing restaurants. Additional factors that may adversely affect the restaurant industry include, but are not limited to, food and wage inflation, safety, and food-borne illness.
Changes in economic conditions may have an adverse impact on our restaurant operations.
Our restaurant operations are subject to normal economic cycles affecting the economy in general or the restaurant industry in particular. The restaurant industry has been affected by economic factors, including the deterioration of global, national, regional, and local economic conditions, declines in employment levels, and shifts in consumer spending patterns. Declines in consumer restaurant spending could be harmful to our financial position and results of operations. As a result, decreased cash flow generated from our business may adversely affect our financial position and our ability to fund our operations. In addition, macroeconomic disruptions could adversely impact the availability of financing for our franchisees’ expansions and operations.
Fluctuations in commodity and energy prices and the availability of commodities, including beef and dairy, could affect our restaurant business.
The cost, availability, and quality of ingredients restaurant operations use to prepare their food are subject to a range of factors, many of which are beyond their control. A significant component of our restaurant business costs is related to food commodities, including beef and dairy products, which can be subject to significant price fluctuations due to seasonal shifts, climate conditions, industry demand, changes in commodity markets, inflation, and other factors. If there is a substantial increase in prices for these food commodities, our results of operations may be negatively affected. In addition, our restaurants are dependent upon frequent deliveries of perishable food products that meet certain specifications. Shortages or interruptions in the supply of perishable food products caused by unanticipated demand, problems in production or distribution, disease or food-borne illnesses, inclement weather, or other conditions could adversely affect the availability, quality, and cost of ingredients, which would likely lower revenues, damage our reputation, or otherwise harm our business. We cannot predict whether we will continue to be able to anticipate and react to changing food costs by adjusting our purchasing practices, menu offerings, and menu prices, and a failure to do so could adversely affect our operating results.

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Adverse weather conditions or losses due to casualties could negatively impact our operating performance.
Property damage caused by casualties and natural disasters, instances of inclement weather, flooding, hurricanes, fire, and other acts of nature can adversely impact sales in several ways. Many of Steak n Shake’s and Western Sizzlin’s restaurants are located in the Midwest and Southeast portions of the United States. During the first and fourth quarters, restaurants in the Midwest may face harsh winter weather conditions. During the third and fourth quarters, restaurants in the Southeast may experience hurricanes or tropical storms. Our sales and operating results may be negatively affected by these harsh weather conditions, which could make it more difficult for guests to visit our restaurants, necessitate the closure of restaurants, cause physical damage, or lead to a shortage of employees.

Changes in the availability of and the cost of labor could adversely affect our restaurant business.
Our restaurant business depends substantially on our ability to recruit and retain high-quality staff. Maintaining adequate staffing in our restaurants requires workforce planning and knowledge of the relevant labor market. The market for the most qualified talent continues to be competitive, and we must provide competitive wages, benefits, and workplace conditions. We have experienced, and may continue to experience, challenges in recruiting and retaining associates in various locations. A shortage of qualified candidates, failure to recruit and retain new associates in a timely manner, or higher than expected turnover levels could all affect our ability to grow sales at existing restaurants or meet our labor cost objectives.
We are subject to health, employment, environmental, and other government regulations, and failure to comply with existing or future government regulations could expose us to litigation or penalties, damage our reputation, and lower profits.
We are subject to various global, federal, state, and local laws and regulations affecting our restaurant operations. Changes in existing laws, rules, and regulations applicable to us, or increased enforcement by governmental authorities, may require us to incur additional costs and expenses necessary for compliance. If we fail to comply with any of these laws, we may be subject to governmental action or litigation, and our reputation could be harmed accordingly. Injury to our reputation would, in turn, likely reduce revenues and profits.
The development and construction of restaurants is subject to compliance with applicable zoning, land use, and environmental regulations. Difficulties in obtaining, or failure to obtain, the required licenses or approvals could delay or prevent the development of a new restaurant in a particular area.
Restaurant operations are also subject to regulatory initiatives in the area of nutrition disclosure or advertising, such as requirements to provide information about the nutritional content of our food products. The operation of the Steak n Shake and Western Sizzlin franchise systems is also subject to franchise laws and regulations enacted by a number of states, and to rules promulgated by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission. Any future legislation regulating franchise relationships may negatively affect our operations, particularly our relationships with franchisees. Failure to comply with new or existing franchise laws and regulations in any jurisdiction, or to obtain required government approvals, could result in a ban or temporary suspension on future franchise sales. Further national, state, and local government initiatives, such as mandatory health insurance coverage or increases in minimum wage rates, could adversely affect our business.
Risks Relating to Our Investment Activities
The majority of our investment activities are conducted through outside investment partnerships, The Lion Fund, L.P., and The Lion Fund II, L.P., which are controlled by Mr. Biglari.
Our investment activities are conducted mainly through these outside investment partnerships. Under the terms of their partnership agreements, each contribution made by the Company to the investment partnerships is subject to a five-year lock-up period, and any distribution upon our withdrawal of funds will be paid out over a two-year period (and may be paid in-kind rather than in cash, thus increasing the difficulty of liquidating these investments). As a result of these provisions and our consequent inability to access this capital for a defined period, the capital we have invested in the investment partnerships may be subject to an increased risk of loss of all or a significant portion of its value, and we may become unable to meet our capital requirements. There is a high likelihood that we will make additional investments in these investment partnerships in the future.
We have a services agreement with Biglari Capital Corp., the general partner of the investment partnerships (“Biglari Capital”), and Biglari Enterprises LLC (collectively, the “Biglari Entities”), in which the Company pays a fixed fee to the Biglari Entities for business and administrative-related services. The Biglari Entities are owned by Mr. Biglari. There can be no assurance that the fees paid will be commensurate with the benefits received.
The incentive allocation to which Mr. Biglari, as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Biglari Capital, is entitled with respect to our investments under the terms of the respective partnership agreements is equal to 25% of the net profits allocated to the limited partners in excess of a 6% hurdle rate over the previous high-water mark.
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Our investments may be concentrated, and fair values are subject to a loss in value.
The majority of our investments are held through the investment partnerships, which generally invest in common stocks. These investments may be largely concentrated in the common stocks of a few investees. A significant decline in the values of these investments may produce a large decrease in our consolidated shareholders’ equity and can have a material adverse effect on our consolidated book value per share and earnings.
We are subject to the risk of possibly becoming an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940.
We run the risk of inadvertently becoming an investment company, which would require us to register under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”). Registered investment companies are subject to extensive, restrictive, and potentially adverse regulations relating to, among other things, operating methods, management, capital structure, dividends, and transactions with affiliates. Registered investment companies are not permitted to operate their business in the manner in which we operate our business, nor are registered investment companies permitted to have many of the relationships that we have with our affiliated companies.
To avoid becoming and registering as an investment company under the Investment Company Act, we operate as an ongoing enterprise, with approximately 2,500 employees, along with an asset base from which to pursue acquisitions. Furthermore, Section 3(c)(3) of the Investment Company Act excludes insurance companies from the definition of “investment company.” Because we monitor the value of our investments and structure transactions accordingly, we may structure transactions in a less advantageous manner than if we did not have Investment Company Act concerns, or we may avoid otherwise economically desirable transactions due to those concerns. In addition, adverse developments with respect to our ownership of certain of our operating subsidiaries, including significant appreciation or depreciation in the market value of certain of our publicly traded holdings, could result in our inadvertently becoming an investment company. If it were established that we were an investment company, there would be a risk, among other material adverse consequences, that we could become subject to monetary penalties or injunctive relief, or both, in an action brought by the SEC, that we would be unable to enforce contracts with third parties, or that third parties could seek to obtain rescission of transactions with us undertaken during the period in which it was established that we were an unregistered investment company.
Risks Relating to Our Insurance Business
Our success depends on our ability to underwrite risks accurately and to charge adequate rates to policyholders.
Our results of operations depend on our ability to underwrite and set rates accurately for risks assumed. A primary role of the pricing function is to ensure that rates are adequate to generate sufficient premiums to pay losses, loss adjustment expenses, and underwriting expenses.
Our insurance business is vulnerable to significant catastrophic property loss, which could have an adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations.
Our insurance business faces a significant risk of loss in the ordinary course of its business for property damage resulting from natural disasters, man-made catastrophes, and other catastrophic events. These events typically increase the frequency and severity of commercial property claims. Because catastrophic loss events are by their nature unpredictable, historical results of operations may not be indicative of future results of operations, and the occurrence of claims from catastrophic events may result in significant volatility in our insurance business’s financial condition and results of operations from period to period. We attempt to manage our exposure to these events through reinsurance programs, although there is no assurance we will be successful in doing so.
Our insurance business is subject to extensive existing state, local, and foreign governmental regulations that restrict its ability to do business and generate revenues.
Our insurance business is subject to regulation in the jurisdictions in which it operates. These regulations may relate to, among other things, the types of business that can be written, the rates that can be charged for coverage, the level of capital and reserves that must be maintained, and restrictions on the types and size of investments that can be held. Regulations may also restrict the timing and amount of dividend payments. Accordingly, existing or new regulations related to these or other matters, or regulatory actions imposing restrictions on our insurance business, may adversely impact its results of operations.


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Risks Relating to Our Brand Licensing Business
Licensing opportunities for the Maxim brand may be difficult to maintain.
Maxim’s success depends to a significant degree upon licensing agreements. These licensing agreements mature from time to time, and we may be unable to secure favorable terms for future licensing arrangements. Future licensing partners may also fail to honor their contractual obligations or take other actions that can diminish the value of the Maxim brand. Disputes could arise that prevent or delay our ability to collect licensing revenues under these arrangements. If any of these developments occur or our licensing efforts are otherwise not successful, the value and recognition of the Maxim brand, as well as the prospects of our media business, could be materially, adversely affected.

Risks Relating to Our Oil and Gas Business
Our oil and gas business is exposed to the effects of volatile commodity prices.
The single largest variable that affects our oil and gas results of operations is the price of crude oil and natural gas. The price we receive for our oil and natural gas production heavily influences our oil and gas business’s revenue and profitability. Extended periods of low prices for crude oil or natural gas can have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
Our oil and gas business is subject to disruption by factors beyond its control.
Any disruption of the extractive business of either of our oil and gas subsidiaries would adversely affect our revenues and profitability. Our oil and gas operations are therefore subject to disruption from natural or human causes beyond their control, including physical risks from hurricanes, severe storms, and other forms of system failures, any of which could result in suspension of operations or harm to people or the natural environment.
Our oil and gas business can be adversely affected by political or regulatory developments affecting our operations.
Our oil and gas operations can be affected by changing economic, regulatory, and political environments. Litigation or changes in national, state, or local environmental regulations or laws, including those designed to stop or impede the development or production of oil and natural gas, could adversely affect our operations and profitability.
Item 1B.     Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 1C.     Cybersecurity

Our enterprise (the holding company and its operating subsidiaries) is using technology in virtually all aspects of the business. Much like many other businesses, certain of our subsidiaries’ information systems have been subject to computer viruses, malicious codes, unauthorized access, and other cyberattacks. We expect to be subject to similar attacks in the future as such attacks become more sophisticated. A significant disruption or failure of our technology systems could result in service interruptions, safety failures, security events, regulatory compliance failures, an inability to protect information and assets against unauthorized users, and other operational difficulties. Attacks perpetrated against our systems could result in loss of assets and critical information and expose us to remediation costs and reputational damage.

Cyberattacks could compromise confidential customer and employee information. Cyberattacks may result in business interruptions, lost revenues, higher commodity prices, disruption in fuel supplies, lower energy consumption, unstable markets, increased security, repair or other costs, or may materially adversely affect us in ways that cannot be predicted at this time.

Our operating businesses are managed on an unusually decentralized basis. There are few centralized or integrated business functions. Consistent with our decentralized management philosophy, our operating businesses individually establish specific practices concerning cybersecurity risks. Although our subsidiaries have taken steps intended to mitigate these risks, including business continuity planning, disaster recovery planning, and business impact analysis, a significant disruption or cyber intrusion at one or more of our significant operations could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Additionally, if we are unable to acquire, develop, implement, adopt, or protect rights around new technology, we may suffer a competitive disadvantage, which could also have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Given the wide variations in the nature and size of business activities, specific practices may vary widely among our operating subsidiaries.
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Item 2.     Properties
Restaurant Properties
As of December 31, 2023, restaurant operations included 492 company-operated and franchise locations. Restaurant operations own the land and building for 142 restaurants; they also own one other property. The following table lists the locations of the restaurants as of December 31, 2023.
Steak n ShakeWestern Sizzlin
Company
Operated
Franchise
Partner
Traditional
Franchise
Company
Operated
FranchiseTotal
Domestic:
Alabama— 11 
Arkansas— — — 10 
California— — — — 
Colorado— — — — 
Florida16 60 — — 81 
Georgia11 10 — 32 
Illinois37 17 — — 62 
Indiana35 20 — — 56 
Iowa— — 
Kansas— — — — 
Kentucky— 12 — — 18 
Louisiana— — — — 
Maryland— — — — 
Michigan— — 14 
Mississippi— — — 
Missouri14 20 — — 40 
Nebraska— — — — 
Nevada— — — — 
North Carolina— 14 
Ohio27 19 — 48 
Oklahoma— — — 
Pennsylvania— — — 
South Carolina— — 
Tennessee— 20 
Texas10 — — 19 
Virginia— — 
Washington, D.C.— — — — 
West Virginia— — — 
International:
France— 17 — — 19 
Monaco— — — — 
Spain— — — — 
Total148 181 128 32 492 
As of December 31, 2023, 17 of the 148 Steak n Shake company-operated stores were closed. Steak n Shake plans to sell or lease 10 of the 17 locations and refranchise the balance.


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Other Properties
Southern Oil primarily operates oil and natural gas wells in Louisiana. Its operations are primarily offshore in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

Abraxas Petroleum operates oil and natural gas wells in the Permian Basin.

Through its subsidiaries, the Company owns Steak n Shake’s office building in Indianapolis, Indiana; First Guard’s office building in Venice, Florida; and Southern Pioneer’s office building in Jonesboro, Arkansas. In addition, the Company owns eight various locations that are being leased or are available to be leased by third parties, along with owning one undeveloped property in San Antonio, Texas.
Item 3.     Legal Proceedings
Refer to Commitments and Contingencies - Note 15 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 for a discussion of legal proceedings.
Item 4.     Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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Part II
Item 5.     Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity
Securities
Market Information
Biglari Holdings’ Class A common stock and Class B common stock are listed for trading on the NYSE, trading symbol: BH.A and BH, respectively.
Shareholders
Biglari Holdings had 1,551 beneficial shareholders of its Class A common stock and 4,374 beneficial shareholders of its Class B common stock as of February 1, 2024.
Dividends
Biglari Holdings has never declared a dividend.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
From December 1, 2023 through December 31, 2023, The Lion Fund, L.P. purchased 1,100 shares of Class A common stock and 9,813 shares of Class B common stock. The Lion Fund, L.P. may be deemed an “affiliated purchaser” as defined in Rule 10b-18(a)(3) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The purchases were made through open market transactions.
Total Number of Class A Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per Class A ShareTotal Number of Class B Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per Class B ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsMaximum Number of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under Plans or Programs
October 1, 2023 - October 31, 2023— $— — $— — — 
November 1, 2023 - November 30, 2023— $— — $— — — 
December 1, 2023 - December 31, 20231,100 $828.69 9,813 $164.99 — — 
Total 1,100 9,813 — 
Item 6.     [Reserved]

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Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands, except per-share data)
Biglari Holdings Inc. is a holding company owning subsidiaries engaged in a number of diverse business activities, including property and casualty insurance, licensing and media, restaurants, and oil and gas. The Company’s largest operating subsidiaries are involved in the franchising and operating of restaurants. Biglari Holdings is founded and led by Sardar Biglari, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Company.
Biglari Holdings’ management system combines decentralized operations with centralized financial decision-making. Operating decisions for the various business units are made by their respective managers. All major investment and capital allocation decisions are made for the Company and its subsidiaries by Mr. Biglari.
As of December 31, 2023, Mr. Biglari beneficially owns shares of the Company that represent approximately 66.8% of the economic interest and approximately 71.0% of the voting interest.
Business Acquisitions
On September 14, 2022, the Company purchased Preferred Shares of Abraxas Petroleum Corporation (“Abraxas Petroleum”) for $80,000. On October 26, 2022, the Company converted the Preferred Shares to 90% of the outstanding common stock of Abraxas Petroleum. On June 14, 2023, the remaining 10% of the outstanding common stock of Abraxas Petroleum was acquired for $5,387. The Company used working capital including its line of credit to fund the purchase of the Preferred Shares. Abraxas Petroleum operates oil and natural gas properties in the Permian Basin. The purchase price allocation included $70,200 of oil and gas properties, cash of $21,726, and liabilities, net of other assets, of $11,926. The Company’s financial results include the results of Abraxas Petroleum from the initial acquisition date to the end of the calendar year.

Discussion of Operations
Net earnings attributable to Biglari Holdings Inc. shareholders are disaggregated in the table that follows.
202320222021
Operating businesses:
Restaurant$21,831 $9,383 $11,235 
Insurance10,262 7,662 11,290 
Oil and gas25,406 19,091 7,528 
Brand licensing1,313 2,364 
Interest expense(531)(305)(841)
Corporate and other(17,814)(9,806)(9,829)
Total operating businesses39,162 27,338 21,747 
Investment partnership gains (losses)14,646 (56,961)8,899 
Investment gains (losses)1,731 (2,682)4,832 
Net earnings (loss)55,539 (32,305)35,478 
Earnings (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest591 (287)— 
Net earnings (loss) attributable to Biglari Holdings Inc. shareholders$54,948 $(32,018)$35,478 
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with Item 1, Business and our Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto included in this Form 10-K. The following discussion should also be read in conjunction with the “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and the risks and uncertainties described in Item 1A, Risk Factors, set forth above.



Our Management Discussion and Analysis generally discusses 2023 and 2022 items. Discussions of 2021 items can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 27, 2023.

Investment gains and losses in 2023 and 2022 were mainly derived from our investments in equity securities and included unrealized gains and losses from market price changes during the period. We believe that investment gains/losses are generally meaningless for analytical purposes in understanding our reported quarterly and annual results. These gains and losses have caused and will continue to cause significant volatility in our periodic earnings.
Through our subsidiaries, we engage in numerous diverse business activities. We operate on a decentralized management structure. The business segment data (Note 17 to the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements) should be read in conjunction with this discussion.
Restaurants
Our restaurant businesses, which include Steak n Shake and Western Sizzlin, comprise 492 company-operated and franchise restaurants as of December 31, 2023.
Steak n ShakeWestern Sizzlin
Company-
operated
Franchise
Partner
Traditional
Franchise
Company-
operated
FranchiseTotal
Stores on December 31, 2020276 86 194 39 598 
Corporate stores transitioned(73)73 — — — — 
Net restaurants opened (closed)(4)— (16)— (1)(21)
Stores on December 31, 2021199 159 178 38 577 
Corporate stores transitioned(16)16 — — — — 
Net restaurants opened (closed)(6)— (24)— (2)(32)
Stores on December 31, 2022177 175 154 36 545 
Corporate stores transitioned(6)(1)— — — 
Net restaurants opened (closed)(23)(1)(25)— (4)(53)
Stores on December 31, 2023148 181 128 32 492 

As of December 31, 2023, 17 of the 148 company-operated Steak n Shake stores were closed. Steak n Shake plans to sell or lease 10 of the 17 locations and refranchise the balance.


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Management’s Discussion and Analysis (continued)

Restaurant operations for 2023, 2022, and 2021 are summarized below.
202320222021
Revenue
Net sales$152,545 $149,184 $187,913 
Franchise partner fees 72,552 63,853 55,641 
Franchise royalties and fees16,443 19,678 21,736 
Other revenue9,317 8,853 6,000 
Total revenue250,857 241,568 271,290 
Restaurant cost of sales
Cost of food44,993 29.5 %44,461 29.8 %55,315 29.4 %
Labor costs47,090 30.9 %50,524 33.9 %58,159 30.9 %
Occupancy and other45,903 30.1 %45,279 30.4 %54,017 28.7 %
Total cost of sales137,986 140,264 167,491 
Selling, general and administrative
General and administrative44,120 17.6 %40,206 16.6 %39,940 14.7 %
Marketing12,631 5.0 %13,921 5.8 %13,923 5.1 %
Other expenses (income)(7,935)(3.2)%(2,294)(0.9)%3,323 1.2 %
Total selling, general and administrative48,816 51,833 57,186 
Impairments3,947 1.6 %3,520 1.5 %4,635 1.7 %
Depreciation and amortization27,031 10.8 %27,496 11.4 %21,484 7.9 %
Interest on finance leases and obligations5,114 5,493 6,039 
Earnings before income taxes27,963 12,962 14,455 
Income tax expense6,132 3,579 3,220 
Contribution to net earnings$21,831 $9,383 $11,235 
Cost of food, labor, and occupancy and other costs are expressed as a percentage of net sales.
General and administrative, marketing, other expenses, impairments, and depreciation and amortization are expressed as a percentage of total revenue.

Net sales during 2023 were $152,545 as compared to $149,184 during 2022. For company-operated units, sales to the end customer are recorded as revenue generated by the Company, but for franchise partner units, only our share of the restaurants’ profits, along with certain fees, are recorded as revenue. Because we derive most of our revenue from our share of the profits, revenue will decline as we transition from company-operated units to franchise partner units.

Fees generated by our franchise partners were $72,552 during 2023 as compared to $63,853 during 2022. As of December 31, 2023, there were 181 franchise partner units as compared to 175 franchise partner units as of December 31, 2022. Included in the franchise partner fees were $22,687 and $20,426 of rental income during 2023 and 2022, respectively. Franchise partners rent buildings and equipment from Steak n Shake.


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Management’s Discussion and Analysis (continued)


The franchise royalties and fees generated by the traditional franchising business were $16,443 during 2023 as compared to $19,678 during 2022. The decrease in franchise royalties and fees was primarily due to the closing of certain traditional franchise stores. There were 160 traditional units open on December 31, 2023, as compared to 190 units open on December 31, 2022.

The cost of food at company-operated units in 2023 was $44,993, or 29.5% of net sales as compared to $44,461, or 29.8% of net sales in 2022. The cost of food expressed as a percentage of net sales in 2023 remained consistent with 2022.

The labor costs at company-operated restaurants during 2023 were $47,090, or 30.9% of net sales as compared to $50,524, or 33.9% of net sales in 2022. The 3-percentage-point decrease in costs was primarily attributable to a 2.7-percentage-point decrease in Steak n Shake’s labor costs as a result of a gain in productivity.

General and administrative expenses during 2023 were $44,120, or 17.6% of total revenue as compared to $40,206, or 16.6% of total revenue during 2022. General and administrative expenses increased during 2023 as compared to 2022 primarily because of higher salaries and wages. An increase in overall personnel and additional franchise partner training accounted for much of the increase in general and administrative expenses.

Other income increased during 2023 compared to 2022 primarily because of gains on the sale of real estate.

Interest on obligations under leases was $5,114 during 2023 versus $5,493 during 2022. The year-over-year decrease in interest expense was primarily attributable to the maturity and retirement of lease obligations.

To better convey the performance of the franchise partnership model, the table below shows the underlying sales, cost of food, labor costs, and other restaurant costs of the franchise partners. We believe the franchise partner information is useful to readers, as they have a direct effect on Steak n Shake’s profitability.
20232022
Revenue
Net sales and other$324,281 $296,045 
Restaurant cost of sales
Cost of food$91,317 28.2 %$81,952 27.7 %
Labor costs86,286 26.6 %84,191 28.4 %
Occupancy and other66,135 20.4 %59,647 20.1 %
Total cost of sales$243,738 $225,790 

The Company’s consolidated financial statements do not include data in the table above. Figures are shown for information purposes only.




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Management’s Discussion and Analysis (continued)

Insurance
We view our insurance businesses as possessing two activities: underwriting and investing. Underwriting decisions are the responsibility of the unit managers, whereas investing decisions are the responsibility of our Chairman and CEO, Sardar Biglari. Our business units are operated under separate local management. Biglari Holdings’ insurance operations consist of First Guard and Southern Pioneer.

Underwriting results of our insurance operations are summarized below.

202320222021
Underwriting gain (loss) attributable to:
First Guard$9,492 $6,578 $10,573 
Southern Pioneer(1,038)(1,277)1,744 
Pre-tax underwriting gain8,454 5,301 12,317 
Income tax expense1,775 1,113 2,587 
Net underwriting gain$6,679 $4,188 $9,730 

Earnings of our insurance operations are summarized below.
202320222021
Premiums earned$61,225 $59,949 $55,411 
Insurance losses35,668 37,187 27,649 
Underwriting expenses17,103 17,461 15,445 
Pre-tax underwriting gain8,454 5,301 12,317 
Other income and expenses
Investment income3,074 1,380 704 
Other income 1,555 3,223 1,414 
Total other income4,629 4,603 2,118 
Earnings before income taxes13,083 9,904 14,435 
Income tax expense2,821 2,242 3,145 
Contribution to net earnings$10,262 $7,662 $11,290 
Insurance premiums and other on the consolidated statement of earnings includes premiums earned, investment income, other income, and commissions. Commissions are in other income in the above table.

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis (continued)

First Guard

First Guard is a direct underwriter of commercial truck insurance, primarily selling physical damage and nontrucking liability insurance to truckers. First Guard’s insurance products are marketed primarily through direct response methods via the Internet or by telephone. First Guard’s cost-efficient direct response marketing methods enable it to be a low-cost insurer. A summary of First Guard’s underwriting results follows.
202320222021
 Amount  %  Amount  %  Amount  %
Premiums earned$36,917 100.0 %$35,914 100.0 %$33,521 100.0 %
Insurance losses 20,861 56.5 %22,299 62.1 %16,338 48.7 %
Underwriting expenses 6,564 17.8 %7,037 19.6 %6,610 19.7 %
Total losses and expenses 27,425 74.3 %29,336 81.7 %22,948 68.4 %
Pre-tax underwriting gain $9,492 $6,578 $10,573 

First Guard’s ratio of losses and loss adjustment expenses to premiums earned was 56.5% during 2023 as compared to 62.1% during 2022. First Guard’s underwriting results in 2023 were in line with its historical performance despite cost inflation in property and physical damage claims, which began to accelerate in 2022.

Southern Pioneer

Southern Pioneer underwrites garage liability and commercial property insurance, as well as homeowners and dwelling fire insurance. A summary of Southern Pioneer’s underwriting results follows.
202320222021
Amount% Amount  % Amount%
Premiums earned$24,308 100.0 %$24,035 100.0 %$21,890 100.0 %
Insurance losses 14,807 60.9 %14,888 61.9 %11,311 51.7 %
Underwriting expenses 10,539 43.4 %10,424 43.4 %8,835 40.4 %
Total losses and expenses 25,346 104.3 %25,312 105.3 %20,146 92.1 %
Pre-tax underwriting gain (loss)$(1,038)$(1,277)$1,744 

Southern Pioneer’s ratio of losses and loss adjustment expenses to premiums earned was 60.9% during 2023 as compared to 61.9% during 2022. Southern Pioneer’s performance in both years was primarily attributable to weather-related losses.

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis (continued)


Insurance – Investment Income

A summary of net investment income attributable to our insurance operations follows.

202320222021
Interest, dividends, and other investment income:
First Guard $1,873 $751 $133 
Southern Pioneer 1,201 629 571 
Pre-tax investment income 3,074 1,380 704 
Income tax expense 646 289 148 
Net investment income $2,428 $1,091 $556 

We consider investment income as a component of our aggregate insurance operating results. However, we consider investment gains and losses, whether realized or unrealized, as non-operating.
Oil and Gas
A summary of revenue and earnings of oil and gas operations follows.
202320222021
Oil and gas revenue$45,071 $57,546 $33,004 
Oil and gas production costs17,365 17,842 10,470 
Depreciation, depletion, and accretion10,339 8,013 8,073 
Gain on sale of properties(13,563)— — 
General and administrative expenses5,164 6,500 4,748 
Earnings before income taxes25,766 25,191 9,713 
Income tax expense (benefit)360 6,100 2,185 
Contribution to net earnings$25,406 $19,091 $7,528 
Our oil and gas business is highly dependent on oil and natural gas prices. The average West Texas Intermediate price per barrel for the year ended December 31, 2023, was approximately $77.64 as compared to approximately $94.53 for the year ended December 31, 2022. It is expected that the prices of oil and gas commodities will remain volatile, which will be reflected in our financial results.
Oil and gas production costs have remained constant despite a decrease in revenue primarily because of the acquisition of Abraxas Petroleum and costs to repair nonperforming wells at Southern Oil. Depreciation, depletion, and accretion expense during 2023 increased $2,326 as compared to 2022, primarily due to the acquisition of Abraxas Petroleum in the third quarter of 2022, offset by temporarily shutting producing wells.
During the third quarter of 2023, Abraxas Petroleum entered into a royalty-based arrangement with an unaffiliated party to conduct development activities that will establish proved undeveloped reserves on its proportional share; however, Abraxas Petroleum will not be required to fund any exploration expenditures on its undeveloped properties. As a result of the transaction, a gain of $13,563 was recorded in 2023.

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis (continued)

Abraxas Petroleum
Abraxas Petroleum operates oil and natural gas properties in the Permian Basin. Earnings for Abraxas Petroleum from the date of acquisition, September 14, 2022, are summarized below.

20232022
Oil and gas revenue$27,576 $11,455 
Oil and gas production costs9,605 4,487 
Depreciation, depletion, and accretion6,359 2,510 
Gain on sale of properties(13,563)— 
General and administrative expenses2,765 3,806 
Earnings before income taxes22,410 652 
Income tax expense (benefit)(384)154 
Contribution to net earnings$22,794 $498 
Southern Oil
Southern Oil primarily operates oil and natural gas properties offshore in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Earnings for Southern Oil are summarized below.
202320222021
Oil and gas revenue$17,495 $46,091 $33,004 
Oil and gas production costs7,760 13,355 10,470 
Depreciation, depletion, and accretion3,980 5,503 8,073 
General and administrative expenses2,399 2,694 4,748 
Earnings before income taxes3,356 24,539 9,713 
Income tax expense744 5,946 2,185 
Contribution to net earnings$2,612 $18,593 $7,528 

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis (continued)

Brand Licensing
Maxim’s business lies principally in licensing and media. Earnings of operations are summarized below.
202320222021
Licensing and media revenue$2,118 $4,577 $3,203 
Licensing and media cost1,840 2,695 2,275 
General and administrative expenses267 122 114 
Earnings before income taxes11 1,760 814 
Income tax expense447 (1,550)
Contribution to net earnings$$1,313 $2,364 
Licensing and media revenue decreased $2,459 in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily because an important licensing transaction shifted from 2023 to 2024.
We acquired Maxim with the idea of transforming its business model. The magazine developed the Maxim brand, a franchise we are utilizing to generate nonmagazine revenue, notably through licensing, a cash-generating business related to consumer products, services, and events.
Investment Gains and Investment Partnership Gains

Investment gains were $2,211 ($1,731 net of tax) in 2023 as compared to investment losses of $3,393 ($2,682 net of tax) in 2022. Dividends and interest earned on investments are reported as investment income by our insurance companies. We consider investment income as a component of our aggregate insurance operating results. However, we consider investment gains and losses, whether realized or unrealized, as non-operating.

Earnings from our investments in partnerships are summarized below.
202320222021
Investment partnership gains (losses)$19,440 $(75,953)$10,953 
Tax expense (benefit)4,794 (18,992)2,054 
Contribution to net earnings$14,646 $(56,961)$8,899 
Investment partnership gains include gains/losses from changes in the market values of underlying investments and dividends earned by the partnerships. Dividend income has a lower effective tax rate than income from capital gains. These gains and losses have caused and will continue to cause significant volatility in our periodic earnings.
The investment partnerships hold the Company’s common stock as investments. The Company’s pro-rata share of its common stock held by the investment partnerships is recorded as treasury stock even though these shares are legally outstanding. Gains and losses on Company common stock included in the earnings of the partnerships are eliminated in the Company’s consolidated financial results.
Investment gains and losses in 2023 and 2022 were mainly derived from our investments in equity securities and included unrealized gains and losses from market price changes during the period. We believe that investment gains/losses are generally meaningless for analytical purposes in understanding our reported quarterly or annual results. These gains and losses have caused and will continue to cause significant volatility in our periodic earnings.

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis (continued)

Interest Expense
The Company’s interest expense is summarized below.
202320222021
Interest expense on notes payable and other borrowings$(681)$(399)$(1,121)
Tax benefit(150)(94)(280)
Interest expense net of tax$(531)$(305)$(841)
The Company paid Steak n Shake’s outstanding credit facility in full in February 2021. On September 13, 2022, Biglari Holdings entered into a line of credit in an aggregate principal amount of up to $30,000. There was no balance on the line of credit on December 31, 2023. The balance on the line of credit was $10,000 on December 31, 2022.
Income Taxes
The consolidated income tax expense was $9,308 in 2023 versus a benefit of $10,722 in 2022. During 2023, the Company recognized tax benefits of $5,660 associated with the tax attributes of Abraxas Petroleum’s oil and gas properties offset by an increase in tax expense of $23,786 for investment partnership gains in 2023.
Corporate and Other
Corporate expenses exclude the activities of the restaurant, insurance, brand licensing, and oil and gas businesses. Corporate and other net losses increased in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to an incentive fee of $7,271.
Financial Condition
Our consolidated shareholders’ equity on December 31, 2023, was $599,330, an increase of $52,364 as compared to the December 31, 2022 balance. The increase in shareholders’ equity was primarily due to net income of $54,948 and an increase in additional paid-in capital for purchases of noncontrolling interest of $3,806, offset by a change in treasury stock of $6,662.
Consolidated cash and investments are summarized below.
December 31,
20232022
Cash and cash equivalents$28,066 $37,467 
Investments91,879 69,466 
Fair value of interest in investment partnerships472,772 383,004 
Total cash and investments592,717 489,937 
Less: portion of Company stock held by investment partnerships(273,669)(227,210)
Carrying value of cash and investments on balance sheet$319,048 $262,727 
Unrealized gains/losses of Biglari Holdings’ stock held by the investment partnerships are eliminated in the Company’s consolidated financial results.

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis (continued)

Liquidity
Our balance sheet continues to maintain significant liquidity. Consolidated cash flow activities are summarized below.
202320222021
Net cash provided by operating activities$73,002 $127,825 $228,767 
Net cash used in investing activities(66,080)(136,605)(58,525)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(16,132)3,860 (156,157)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash59 38 (64)
Increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$(9,151)$(4,882)$14,021 

In 2023, cash from operating activities decreased by $54,823 as compared to 2022. The change was primarily attributable to distributions from investment partnerships of $14,500 in 2023 compared to $70,700 in 2022. The distributions during 2022 were primarily used to acquire Abraxas Petroleum.

Net cash used in investing activities was $70,525 lower during 2023 as compared to 2022. Capital expenditures were $6,341 higher in 2022 primarily due to Steak n Shake’s implementation of a self-service model. Proceeds from sales of property and equipment were $19,309 higher in 2023 primarily due to the sale of oil and gas properties for $13,563 and the sale of restaurant properties for $10,883. During 2022, the Company acquired 90% of Abraxas Petroleum for $58,274, net of cash acquired. In 2023, the Company acquired the remaining 10% of Abraxas Petroleum for $5,387.

Cash used by financing activities of $16,132 during 2023 was primarily due to net repayments on the Company’s line of credit. Cash provided by financing activities of $3,860 during 2022 was primarily due to net borrowings on the Company’s line of credit.

We intend to meet the working capital needs of our operating subsidiaries, principally through cash flows generated from operations and cash on hand. We continually review available financing alternatives.

Biglari Holdings Line of Credit
On September 13, 2022, Biglari Holdings entered into a line of credit in an aggregate principal amount of up to $30,000. The line of credit will be available on a revolving basis until September 13, 2024. The line of credit includes customary covenants, as well as financial maintenance covenants. As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with all covenants. There was no balance on the line of credit on December 31, 2023. The balance of the line of credit was $10,000 on December 31, 2022. Our interest rate is based on the 30-day Secured Overnight Financing Rate plus 2.73%.
Western Sizzlin Revolver
Western Sizzlin’s available line of credit is $500. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, Western Sizzlin had no debt outstanding under its revolver.
Critical Accounting Policies
Certain accounting policies require us to make estimates and judgments in determining the amounts reflected in the consolidated financial statements. Such estimates and judgments necessarily involve varying, and possibly significant, degrees of uncertainty. Accordingly, certain amounts currently recorded in the financial statements will likely be adjusted in the future based on new available information and changes in other facts and circumstances. A discussion of our principal accounting policies that required the application of significant judgments as of December 31, 2023, follows.

Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Biglari Holdings Inc. and the wholly owned subsidiaries of Biglari Holdings Inc. The analysis as to whether to consolidate an entity is subject to a significant amount of judgment. All intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Our interests in the investment partnerships are accounted for as equity method investments because of our retained limited partner interest in the investment partnerships. The Company records gains from the investment partnerships (inclusive of the investment partnerships’ unrealized gains and losses on their securities) in the consolidated statement of earnings based on our proportional ownership interest in the investment partnerships.

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis (continued)

Impairment of Restaurant Long-lived Assets
We review company-operated restaurants for impairment on a restaurant-by-restaurant basis when events or circumstances indicate a possible impairment. Assets included in the impairment assessment generally consist of property, equipment, and leasehold improvements directly associated with an individual restaurant as well as any related finance or operating lease assets. We test for impairment by comparing the carrying value of the asset to the undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the total estimated future cash flows are less than the carrying amount of the asset, the carrying value is written down to the estimated fair value, and a loss is recognized in earnings. Determining the future cash flows expected to be generated by an asset requires significant judgment regarding future performance of the asset, fair market value if the asset were to be sold, and other financial and economic assumptions.
Oil and Natural Gas Reserves
Crude oil and natural gas reserves are estimates of future production that impact certain asset and expense accounts. Proved reserves are the estimated quantities of oil and gas that geoscience and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be economically producible in the future under existing economic conditions, operating methods, and government regulations. Proved reserves include both developed and undeveloped volumes. Proved developed reserves represent volumes expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods. Proved undeveloped reserves are volumes expected to be recovered from new wells on undrilled proved acreage, or from existing wells where expenditure is required for recompletion. We estimate our proved oil and natural gas reserves in accordance with the guidelines established by the SEC. Due to the inherent uncertainties and the limited nature of reservoir data, estimates of reserves are subject to change as additional information becomes available.
Income Taxes
We record deferred tax assets or liabilities, which are based on differences between financial reporting and the tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using the currently enacted rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. We record deferred tax assets to the extent we believe there will be sufficient future taxable income to utilize those assets prior to their expiration. To the extent deferred tax assets are unable to be utilized, we would record a valuation allowance against the unrealizable amount and record that amount as a charge against earnings. Due to changing tax laws and state income tax rates, significant judgment is required to estimate the effective tax rate applicable to tax differences arising from reversal in the future. We must also make estimates about the sufficiency of taxable income in future periods to offset any deductions related to deferred tax assets currently recorded.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
We evaluate goodwill and any indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually, or more frequently if circumstances indicate impairment may have occurred. Goodwill impairment occurs when the estimated fair value of goodwill is less than its carrying value. The valuation methodology and underlying financial information included in our determination of fair value require significant managerial judgment. Based on a review of the qualitative factors, if we determine it is not more likely than not that the fair value is less than the carrying value, we may bypass the quantitative impairment test. We may also elect not to perform the qualitative assessment for the reporting unit or intangible assets and perform a quantitative impairment test instead.

Leases
We determine whether a contract is or contains a lease at contract inception based on the presence of identified assets and our right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefit from, or to direct the use of, such assets. When we determine a lease exists, we record a right-of-use asset and corresponding lease liability on our consolidated balance sheets. Right-of-use assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term. Lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Right-of-use assets are recognized at the commencement date at the value of the lease liability and are adjusted for any prepayments, lease incentives received, and initial direct costs incurred. Lease liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of remaining lease payments over the lease term. As the discount rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable in most of our leases, we use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. Our lease terms include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. We do not record lease contracts with a term of 12 months or less on our consolidated balance sheets. We recognize fixed lease expense for operating leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. For finance leases, we recognize amortization expense on the right-of-use asset and interest expense on the lease liability over the lease term.
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Management’s Discussion and Analysis (continued)

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
For detailed information regarding recently issued accounting pronouncements and the expected impact on our consolidated financial statements, see Note 1 “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report on Form 10-K.
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This report includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In general, forward-looking statements include estimates of future revenues, cash flows, capital expenditures, or other financial items, and assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Forward-looking statements reflect management’s current expectations regarding future events and use words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “may,” and other similar terminology. A forward-looking statement is neither a prediction nor a guarantee of future events or circumstances, and those future events or circumstances may not occur. Investors should not place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this report. These forward-looking statements are all based on currently available operating, financial, and competitive information and are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Our actual future results and trends may differ materially depending on a variety of factors, many beyond our control, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described in Item 1A, Risk Factors, set forth above. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise them, except as may be required by law.
Item 7A.     Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Not applicable.
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Item 8.     Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the shareholders and the Board of Directors of Biglari Holdings Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Biglari Holdings Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of earnings, comprehensive income, changes in shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 24, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Emphasis of a Matter
As discussed in Note 4 and Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company and its subsidiaries have invested in investment partnerships in the form of limited partnership interests. These investment partnerships represent related parties, and such investments are subject to a rolling five-year lock up period under the terms of the respective partnership agreements for the investment partnerships. The value of these investments reported in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 totals $199,103,000 and $155,794,000, respectively. Our opinion is not modified with respect to this matter.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.


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Property and Equipment — Refer to Notes 1 and 6 to the financial statements
Critical Audit Matter Description
Company-operated restaurants and associated long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment on a restaurant-by-restaurant basis when events or circumstances indicate a possible impairment may have occurred. The Company’s evaluation of potential impairment of long-lived assets involves the comparison of undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset group, generally an individual restaurant, over the expected remaining useful life of that asset group, to the respective carrying amount. The Company also applied a market analysis for certain properties. The Company’s undiscounted future cash flows analysis requires management to make estimates and assumptions related to future revenues, labor costs and planned operating periods. To the extent that the undiscounted cash flows are not sufficient to recover the related assets, the Company estimates the fair value of the related assets using a discounted cash flow model to assess the amount of any impairment.
We identified the impairment of company-operated restaurant long-lived assets as a critical audit matter because of the estimates and assumptions required by management to evaluate the potential impairment of these asset groups. This required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort when performing audit procedures to evaluate the reasonableness of certain assumptions, in management’s undiscounted and discounted future cash flows analyses, including revenue growth, food costs, labor costs, and planned operating periods of restaurants.
How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to the undiscounted and discounted future cash flows analysis and the assessment of the expected remaining holding period included the following, among others:
We tested the effectiveness of controls over management’s evaluation of the recoverability of long-lived assets, including those over revenue, food costs, labor costs and the planned operating period for the store.
We evaluated the undiscounted future cash flows analysis, including estimates of revenue growth, labor costs and planned operating periods of restaurants by (1) evaluating the underlying source information and assumptions used by management (2) performing sensitivity analyses and (3) testing the mathematical accuracy of the undiscounted future cash flows analysis.
We evaluated the reasonableness of management’s undiscounted future cash flows analysis by comparing management’s projections to the Company’s historical results and available market data.
With the assistance of our fair value specialists, for the properties where management applied a market analysis, we evaluated the reasonableness of the valuation methodology and used comparable current market data to develop a range of independent estimates and compare our estimates to those used by management.
We evaluated the discount rates used by management in the performance of discounted cash flow analyses by testing management’s calculation, performing sensitivity analyses, and assessed the mathematical accuracy of the Company’s calculations of potential impairment.


/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
Austin, Texas
February 24, 2024

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2003.

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the shareholders and the Board of Directors of Biglari Holdings Inc.
Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Biglari Holdings Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023, of the Company and our report dated February 24, 2024, expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements and included an emphasis of matter paragraph relating to the Company’s investment in related party investment partnerships.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
Austin, Texas
February 24, 2024
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BIGLARI HOLDINGS INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(dollars in thousands)
December 31,
20232022
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$28,066 $37,467 
Investments91,879 69,466 
Receivables22,241 29,375 
Inventories2,980 3,851 
Other current assets7,385 10,495 
Total current assets152,551 150,654 
Property and equipment380,491 400,725 
Operating lease assets32,215 34,739 
Goodwill53,530 53,513 
Other intangible assets23,230 23,037 
Investment partnerships199,103 155,794 
Other assets8,302 10,012 
Total assets$849,422 $828,474 
Liabilities and shareholders’ equity
Liabilities
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable and accrued expenses$66,743 $78,616 
Loss and loss adjustment expenses15,168 16,805 
Unearned premiums14,334 12,495 
Current portion of lease obligations14,855 16,981 
Line of credit 10,000 
Total current liabilities111,100 134,897 
Lease obligations86,389 91,844 
Deferred taxes37,939 31,343 
Asset retirement obligations14,316 14,068 
Other liabilities348 754 
Total liabilities250,092 272,906 
Shareholders’ equity
Common stock1,138 1,138 
Additional paid-in capital385,594 381,788 
Retained earnings631,458 576,510 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(2,518)(2,790)
Treasury stock, at cost(416,342)(409,680)
Biglari Holdings Inc. shareholders’ equity599,330 546,966 
Noncontrolling interests 8,602 
Total shareholders’ equity599,330 555,568 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$849,422 $828,474 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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BIGLARI HOLDINGS INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EARNINGS
(dollars in thousands except per-share amounts)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Revenue
Restaurant operations$250,857 $241,568 $271,290 
Insurance premiums and other67,272 64,540 58,609 
Oil and gas45,071 57,546 33,004 
Licensing and media2,118 4,577 3,203 
Total revenue365,318 368,231 366,106 
Cost and expenses
Restaurant cost of sales137,986 140,264 167,491 
Insurance losses and underwriting expenses52,771 54,648 43,094 
Oil and gas production costs17,365 17,842 10,470 
Licensing and media costs1,840 2,695 2,275 
Selling, general and administrative77,002 70,608 76,018 
Gain on sale of oil and gas properties(13,563)  
Impairments3,947 3,520 4,635 
Depreciation, depletion, and amortization38,979 36,443 30,050 
Interest expense on leases5,114 5,493 6,039 
Interest expense on debt681 399 1,121 
Total cost and expenses322,122 331,912 341,193 
Other income (expenses)
Investment gains (losses)2,211 (3,393)6,401 
Investment partnership gains (losses)19,440 (75,953)10,953 
Total other income (expenses)21,651 (79,346)17,354 
Earnings (loss) before income taxes64,847 (43,027)42,267 
Income tax expense (benefit)9,308 (10,722)6,789 
Net earnings (loss)55,539 (32,305)35,478 
Earnings (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest591 (287) 
Net earnings (loss) attributable to Biglari Holdings Inc. shareholders$54,948 $(32,018)$35,478 
Net earnings (loss) per equivalent Class A share *  $189.49 $(107.43)$111.83 
* Net earnings (loss) per equivalent Class B share outstanding are one-fifth of the equivalent Class A share or $37.90 for 2023, $(21.49) for 2022, and $22.37 for 2021.
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.






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BIGLARI HOLDINGS INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(dollars in thousands)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net earnings (loss)$55,539 $(32,305)$35,478 
Foreign currency translation272 (883)(376)
Comprehensive income55,811 (33,188)35,102 
Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interest591 (287) 
Total comprehensive income attributable to Biglari Holdings Inc. shareholders$55,220 $(32,901)$35,102 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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BIGLARI HOLDINGS INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(dollars in thousands)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Operating activities
Net earnings (loss)$55,539 $(32,305)$35,478 
Adjustments to reconcile net earnings (loss) to operating cash flows:
Depreciation and amortization38,979 36,443 30,050 
Provision for deferred income taxes6,567 (15,582)5,269 
Asset impairments 3,947 3,520 4,772 
Gains on sale of assets(21,241)(1,578)(25)
Investment (gains) losses(2,211)3,393 (6,214)
Investment partnership (gains) losses(19,440)75,953 (10,953)
Distributions from investment partnerships14,500 70,700 180,170 
Changes in receivables and inventories5,783 3,339 (9,324)
Changes in other assets2,810 8,523 136 
Changes in accounts payable and accrued expenses(12,231)(24,581)(592)
Net cash provided by operating activities73,002 127,825 228,767 
Investing activities
Capital expenditures(23,405)(29,746)(64,549)
Proceeds from property and equipment disposals24,627 5,318 10,101 
Acquisition of business, net of cash acquired (58,274) 
Purchases of noncontrolling interests(5,387)  
Purchases of interests in limited partnerships(45,030)(48,569)(12,300)
Purchases of investments(107,866)(134,451)(110,199)
Sales of investments and redemptions of fixed maturity securities90,981 129,117 118,422 
Net cash used in investing activities(66,080)(136,605)(58,525)
Financing activities
Payments on line of credit(41,600)(20,000) 
Proceeds from line of credit31,600 30,000  
Principal payments on long-term debt  (149,952)
Principal payments on direct financing lease obligations(6,132)(6,140)(6,205)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(16,132)3,860 (156,157)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash59 38 (64)
Increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash(9,151)(4,882)14,021 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period38,805 43,687 29,666 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period$29,654 $38,805 $43,687 
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Cash and cash equivalents$28,066 $37,467 $42,349 
Restricted cash included in other long-term assets1,588 1,338 1,338 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period$29,654 $38,805 $43,687 
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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BIGLARI HOLDINGS INC. 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(dollars in thousands)
Biglari Holdings Inc. Shareholder’s Equity
Common StockAdditional Paid-
In Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Treasury StockNon-controlling interestTotal
Balance at December 31, 2020$1,138 $381,788 $573,050 $(1,531)$(389,617)$ $564,828 
Net earnings (loss)35,478 35,478 
Other comprehensive income, net(376)(376)
Adjustment for holdings in investment partnerships(12,234)(12,234)
Balance at December 31, 2021$1,138 $381,788 $608,528 $(1,907)$